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Inquiry How could you find the volume of a rock, such as pumice, that floats in water? Design an investigation to test your prediction.

Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from

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I Study Guide s

BIG (Idea

Earth scientists use specific methods to investigate Earth and beyond.


Earth Science astronomy (p. 6) atmosphere (p. 8) biosphere (p. 9) environmental science (p. 7) geology (p. 7) geosphere (p. 8) hydrosphere (p. 8) meteorology (p. 6) oceanography (p. 7)

Key Concepts

MAUWJdSa Earth science encompasses five areas of study: astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science.

• Earth is divided into four systems: the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

• Earth systems are all interdependent.

• Identifying the interrelationships between Earth systems leads to specialties and subspecialties.

• Technology is important, not only in science, but in everyday life.

• Earth science has contributed to the development of many items used in everyday life.

Section 1.2

Methods of Scientists control (p. 12) dependent variable (p. 12) hypothesis (p. 10) independent variable (p. 12) Le Système International d'Unités (SI) (p. 13)

scientific methods (p. 10) scientific notation (p. 16)

immn4BBB Scientists use scientific methods to structure their experiments and investigations.

• Scientists work in many ways to gather data.

• A good scientific experiment includes an independent variable, dependent variable, and control. An investigation, however, does not include a control.

• Graphs, tables, and charts are three common ways to communicate data from an experiment.

• SI, a modern version of the metric system, is a standard form of measurement that all scientists can use.

• To express very large or very small numbers, scientists use scientific notation.

Section 1.3

Communication in Science scientific law (p. 19) scientific model (p. 18) scientific theory (p. 19)

MAHEE3 Precise communication is crucial for scientists to share their results effectively with each other and with society.

• Scientists communicate data so others can learn the results, verify the results, examine conclusions for bias, and conduct new experiments.

• There are three main types of graphs scientists use to represent data: line graphs, circle graphs, and bar graphs.

• A scientific model is an accurate representation of an idea or theory.

• Scientific theories and scientific laws are sometimes discovered accidentally.

Seieneqjr Vocabulary PuzzleMaker


Vocabulary Review

Explain the relationship between the vocabulary terms below.

1. geosphere, mantle

2. hydrosphere, atmosphere

3. oceanography, hydrosphere

4. meteorology, atmosphere

5. geology, biosphere

For Questions 6 to 9, fill in the blanks with the correct vocabulary terms from the Study Guide.

6. When conducting experiments, scientists use _to help guide their processes.

7. The_is the one factor that can be manipulated by the experimenter.

8. Scientists use a form of shorthand called_

to express very large or very small numbers.

9. Most scientific studies and experiments use a standard system of units called ________ .

Write a sentence using the following vocabulary terms.

10. scientific theory

11. scientific law

12. scientific model

Fill in the blanks with a vocabulary term from the

Study Guide.

13. In the field of_, scientists measure temperature, pressure, and humidity.

14. Their measurements come from features of the

________and hydrosphere, and they look at how weather affects the ________and geosphere.

15. The units of their measurements come from _and the metric system.

16. The numbers generally are not large, so _is not used.

Setone v Chapter Test

Understand Key Concepts

17. Which one of these is NOT a specialized area of Earth science?

A. astronomy

B. environmental science

C. technology

D. oceanography

Use the figure below to answer Questions 18 and 19.

18. Which type of scientist is shown above?

A. oceanographer

B. geologist

C. astronomer

D. meteorologist

19. Which type of research is this scientist conducting?

A. field research

B. lab research

C. library research

D. biological research

20. Which is a sequence of steps a scientist might use to conduct an investigation?

A. analysis, test, question, conclude

B. test, question, conclude, analysis

C. question, test, analysis, conclude

D. conclude, test, question, analysis

Chapter 1 • Assessment 23

Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS

Use the figure below to answer Questions 21 and 22.

21. Identify the Earth system that is labeled A.

A. atmosphere

B. biosphere

C. hydrosphere

D. geosphere

22. Identify the Earth system that is labeled B.

A. atmosphere

B. biosphere

C. hydrosphere

D. geosphere

23. Which type makes up 97 percent of Earth's water?

A. groundwater

B. salt water

C. freshwater

D. spring water

24. Which is true of scientific models?

A. They never change.

B. They must be true for at least ten years.

C. They will be modified with new observations and data.

D. They are generally the work of one scientist.

25. Select the correct scientific notation for 150,000,000 km.

24 Chapter 1 • Assessment

(tr)Bill Varie/CORBIS

Constructed Response

26. Explain how technology relates to science. Use the photo below to answer Question 27.

Image How Explain Summarize

27. Identify the SI units that would be used to measure each of the above items.

28. Summarize each of Earth's systems and explain their relationships to each other.

29. Compare and contrast an investigation and an experiment.

30. Apply Why might a graph be more helpful in explaining data than just writing the results in words?

31. Apply When ice is heated above 0°C, it melts. Is this a theory or a law? Explain.

Think Critically

32. CAREERS IN EARTH SCIENCE Why would a meteorologist need an understanding of Earth's hydrosphere?

33. Design an Experiment Suppose you want to find the effect of sunlight on the temperature of a room with the shade up and the shade down. Describe how you would test this hypothesis. What would be your variables? What would you use as a control?

Earth j.

flciMieqp mfi Chapter Test

Chapter ^ Assessment

34. Propose An ecologist wants to study the effects of pollution on plant growth. The scientist uses two groups of plants. To the first group, a type of pollutant is added. To the second group, nothing is added. The scientist records plant growth for each plant for two weeks. What is the purpose of the second group in the scientist's study?

Use the table below to answer Question 35.

Some SI Conversions

1 m =

mm =


1 g =

mg =


1 cm3 =

m3 =


3.5 km =

m =


35. Calculate Copy the table into your notebook. Complete the table. Once you have made your conversions, express each answer in scientific notation.

Concept Mapping

36. Use the following terms to make a concept map summarizing the units used to measure each quantity discussed in the chapter: time, density, temperature, volume, mass, weight, length, area, °C, g/mL, km, s, cm3, m2, kg, and N. For help, refer to the Skillbuilder Handbook.

Challenge Question

37. Evaluate A scientist is researching a new cancer drug. Fifty patients have been diagnosed with the type of cancer the drug is designed to treat. If a control is used, the patients might not receive any medication. The patients do not know if they are receiving the placebo or the new medication. For this reason, the patients are allowed to also receive traditional treatment if they choose. How will this impact the research? How should the scientist account for this information in the results? Should the scientists be allowed to discourage patients from receiving additional treatment?

Additional Assessment

38. H223EEE& Earth Science Imagine you are writing an explanation of the scientific methods for someone who has never done a scientific investigation before. Explain what the scientific methods are and why they are so important.

Document-Based Questions

Data obtained from: Annual mean sunspot numbers 1700-2002.

National Geophysical Data Center.

Use the graphs below to answer Questions 39-41.



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Annual Sunspot Numbers 1700-2002




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  • tanja
    What is the relationship between geosphere and mantle?
    8 years ago
  • josh
    How has earth science contriburted to the development of items used everyday?
    8 years ago
  • awet
    What is inquiry extensiom?
    8 years ago
  • duenna
    How do scientist use scientific notation?
    8 years ago
  • miranda
    Why would a meteorologist need to understand of earth's hydrosphere?
    8 years ago
  • Lena
    What is a sequence of steps that a scientist might use to conduct an investigation?
    8 years ago
  • carambo
    How could you find the volume of a rock such as pumice, which floats in water?
    8 years ago
    When should a scientist use standard form?
    8 years ago
  • lena
    What type scientist studies the geosphere?
    8 years ago
  • mike
    What are most scientific studies and experiments that use a standard system of units caled?
    8 years ago
  • robel
    What is an inquiry extension?
    5 years ago

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