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1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year

1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year

39. Is there a consistent pattern in the graphs? If so, what is the pattern showing?

40. What do the graphs express regarding the number of sunspots that have been seen and recorded since the 1700s?

41. What would you predict would be the pattern for the years 2000 to 2100?

Cumulative Review

In Chapters 2-30, Cumulative Review questions will help you review and check your understanding of concepts discussed in previous chapters.

Chapter Test

Chapter 1 • Assessment 25

Chapter 1 • Assessment 25

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

1. Identify the type of Earth science that involves the study of the materials that make up Earth.

A. astronomy

B. meteorology

C. geology

D. oceanography

Use the graph below to answer Questions 2 and 3.

50 40 30 20 10

Reaction Distance vs. Speed










2. The distance a car travels between the time the driver decides to stop the car and the time the driver puts on the brakes is called the reaction distance. How does the reaction distance change with speed?

A. Reaction distance decreases with speed.

B. Reaction distance is the same as speed.

C. Reaction distance increases with speed.

D. There is not enough information to answer the question.

3. According to the graph, what is the reaction distance of the driver traveling 20 m/s?

4. Which lists Earth's layers from the inside out?

A. inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

B. crust, mantle, outer core, inner core

C. crust, inner core, outer core, mantle

D. mantle, outer core, inner core, crust

5. A block is 2 cm wide, 5.4 cm deep, and 3.1 cm long. The density of the block is 8.5 g/cm3. What is the mass of the block?

6. If a conclusion is supported by data, but does not support an original hypothesis, what should a scientist do?

A. The scientist should reevaluate the original hypothesis.

B. The scientist should redesign the experiment.

C. The scientist should not change anything.

D. The scientist should modify the conclusion.

Use the illustration below to answer Questions 7 and <

7. This sign was found at the entrance to a chemistry laboratory. Why is this an important sign?

A. Goggles help chemists see better.

B. Chemicals can seriously damage eyes and skin.

C. Accidents rarely happen in laboratories.

D. Chemists will be fined if they do not obey the rules.

8. Why are safety rules posted, like this sign, or stated when conducting experiments?

A. Safety rules are used to scare students.

B. The goal of safety rules is to make an experiment boring.

C. Safety rules are just suggestions as to how to behave during an experiment.

D. The safety rules are given for scientists' protection.

9. What should you always do when conducting an experiment?

A. You should clean up broken glass yourself.

B. You should unplug cords by pulling on the cord, not the plug.

C. You should report spills immediately.

D. You should flush your eyes at the eyewash station.

10. Which of the following are Sir Isaac Newton's ideas on motion considered to be?

A. scientific law C. scientific model

B. scientific theory D. hypothesis

26 Chapter 1 • Assessment

Standardized Test Practice

Short Answer

Use the graph below to answer Questions 11-13.

The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Sunflower Growth

The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Sunflower Growth w 4

10 20 30 40

Ultraviolet light exposure time (h)

10 20 30 40

Ultraviolet light exposure time (h)

11. According to the graph, what was the greatest growth observed?

12. What type of graph is this? Why is this the best way to represent the data?

13. What are some variables that might affect the outcome of the experiment?

14. Describe the difference between the terms astronomy and meteorology.

15. Analyze the idea that technology is transferable. How is this beneficial?

16. Explain the importance of making a hypothesis before conducting an experiment.

17. Justine wants to measure how far an ant moves across a table in 1-min intervals. What would be the independent variable in this example?

Reading for Comprehension

Experiment Steps

Michael conducted an experiment to test if matter is conserved after a phase change. He filled an empty bottle with 50 mL of water and placed it in a sunny window until the liquid water changed to water vapor. The steps of the activity are listed in the table below but might not be in the correct order.

Experiment Steps


Find the mass of the bottle, lid, and water vapor.


Pour 50 mL of water into an empty bottle.


Find the mass of the bottle, lid, and 50 mL of water.


Place a lid on the opening of the bottle to tightly seal it.

18. Which shows the experiment steps in the correct order?

19. According to the text, which would be the control of the experiment?

A. the water

B. the water vapor

C. the location of the bottle on the sunny window

D. the time Michael waits for the water to become water vapor

20. Why does Michael want to find the mass of the water and water vapor and not the weight?

A. The mass is the amount of matter in the water and water vapor.

B. The mass measures the gravitational force on the water and water vapor.

C. The mass varies by location.

D. The mass is measured in newtons.


If You Missed Question . . .


















Review Section . . .

















Standardized Test Practice

Chapter 1 • Assessment 27

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