Contrast Of Suspension And Saltation As They Relate To Transport Of Materials By Wind

Vocabulary Review

Match the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide to the following definitions.

1. rapid downslope movement of a mass of loose sediment

2. rapidly flowing, often destructive mixtures of mud and water

3. slow, steady downhill movement of loose, weathered Earth materials

Replace each underlined word with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

4. Barchans are rock structures shaped by windblown sediments.

5. Thick, windblown, fertile deposits of silt that contain high levels of nutrients and minerals are known as desert pavement.

6. Deflation occurs when particles such as sand rub against the surface of rocks.

Explain the differences between the vocabulary terms in the following sets.

7. valley glacier, continental glacier

8. esker, kame

9. moraine, outwash plain

Understand Key Concepts

10. What are elongated landforms made of older moraines over which glaciers move?

A drumlins

B. kettle lakes

C. eskers

D. outwash plains

11. Which particles can wind move most easily?

A. sand

B. pebbles

C. silt

D. gravel

Setone v Chapter Test

12. Which is the underlying force that causes all forms of mass movement?

A. friction

B. gravity

C. magnetism

D. the Coriolis Effect

13. The last continental ice age covered approximately what percent of Earth's surface?

A. 10 percent

B. 20 percent

C. 30 percent

D. 50 percent

14. Where are large deposits of glacial loess primarily found?

A. eastern United States

B. southeastern United States

C. southwestern United States

D. midwestern United States

15. Which has the fastest movement?

A. solifluction

B. creep

C. mudflow

D. avalanche

Use the photo below to answer Questions 16 and 17.

Abrasion Weathering

16. Which formed the structure in the photo?

B. water D. organisms

17. Which process formed the structure in the photo?

A. abrasion C. deposition

B. deflation D. migration

Chapter 8 • Assessment 217

Gabe Palmer/CORBIS


18. Which range of slopes is associated with producing an avalanche?

A. 10 to 20 degrees C. 30 to 45 degrees

B. 20 to 35 degrees D. 45 to 60 degrees

19. Which statement best describes sediments deposited by glaciers and rivers?

A. Both glacial and river deposits are sorted.

B. Glacial deposits are sorted, and river deposits are unsorted.

C. Glacial deposits are unsorted, and river deposits are sorted.

D. Both glacial and river deposits are unsorted deposits.

Use the photo below to answer Question 20.

River Deposits Unsorted

20. Which process most likely created the valley?

A. running water

B. glacial ice

C. landslide

D. strong prevailing winds

21. Which is a way to reduce the risk of mass movements?

A. Develop hillsides with roads so they become stable.

B. Allow septic systems to run unmaintained so that they provide a source of nutrients for the soil.

C. Build homes in steep terrain in order to stabilize the slope.

D. Avoid construction and structures on vulnerable slopes.

22. Which property is used to classify dunes?

B. composition D. density

23. Which affects the speed of a valley glacier's movement?

A. slope of the valley floor

B. shape of the valley wall

C. temperature and thickness of the ice

D. internal chemistry of the glacier

Constructed Response

24. Compare and contrast suspension and saltation as they relate to transport of materials by wind.

25. Infer What happens to sand particles as the sand becomes saturated with water?

Use the figure below to answer Question 26.

26. Identify the features of the glacial landscape.

27. Diagram and label a migrating sand dune. Indicate the prevailing wind direction.

28. Contrast a slide, flow, and rockfall.

29. Describe the relationship between permafrost and solifluction.

30. Identify which mass movements are dependent on the addition of water.

31. Describe how particles eroded by wind differ from particles eroded by water.

32. Infer how human activities could affect the formation and migration of sand dunes in coastal areas.

33. Compare and contrast the formation, shape, and size of particles of a sand dune and a drumlin. How are these features used to indicate the direction of wind and glacial movement?

218 Chapter 8 • Assessment

Chapter Test

Think Critically

Use the figure below to answer Question 34.

Use the figure below to answer Question 34.

Movement Glaciers Animation

34. Hypothesize what kind of mass movements might occur after the eruption of Mount St. Helens.

35. Analyze the conditions that contribute to the likelihood that an area will experience wind erosion, and identify at least three areas in the United States that are prone to wind erosion.

36. Infer why wind abrasion is such an effective agent of erosion.

37. Predict the shape of a lake formed by a valley glacier.

Concept Mapping

38. Create a concept map to compare the terms drumlin, esker, and kame. For more help, refer to the Skillbuilder Handbook.

Challenge Question

39. Hypothesize how the Dust Bowl of the 1930s might have been avoided.

Chapter g Assessment

Additional Assessment

40. ÜH$22232> Earth Science Write an editorial for a newspaper advocating why laws are needed to prevent developers from building homes on relatively steep and loosely consolidated hillside areas.

Document-Based Questions

Data obtained from: Natural Hazards-Landslides Information Sheet.

2006. USGS.

The photo below shows the potential for landslides across the continental United States.

| = Very high potential

■ = Moderate potential Q = Low potential

Earth vt Sclpncf/

Chapter Test

41. Identify landscapes or possible triggers for two areas that have very high potential for landslides.

42. Infer why the potential for landslides occurring in Florida is low.

43. What can be done to reduce the number of deaths due to landslide?

Cumulative Review

44. How many valence electrons does oxygen (atomic number 8) have? (Chapter 3)

45. Which compositional type of igneous rock has the lowest silica content? (Chapter 5)

46. What are fossils? (Chapter 6)

Chapter S • Assessment 219

Chapter S • Assessment 219

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

1. What is the strongest factor that controls the development of soils?

A. parent material

B. topography

C. climate

D. time

Use the table below to answer Questions 2 and 3.




semiarid; experiences intense but brief rainstorms


permafrost; much loose, waterlogged material


mountainous; thick accumulations of snow


thick soils on semi-steep and steep slopes' occasional earthquake activity


arid; high cliffs and rocky shorelines

2. Which mass movement is most likely to occur in Region A?

A. mudflow

B. avalanche

C. slump

D. rockfall

3. Which mass movement is most likely to occur in Region B?

A. solifluction

B. mudflow

C. avalanche

D. slump

4. Which branch of science studies humans' interactions with the environment?

A. planetary science

B. environmental science

C. oceanography

D. geology

5. When do minerals form from a solution?

A. when the solution is saturated

B. when the solution is supersaturated

C. when the solution is unsaturated

D. when the solution is ultrasaturated

6. Why are the 24 time zones located approximately 15° apart?

A. to line up with the equator

B. to roughly match lines of latitude

C. to roughly match lines of longitude

D. to line up with the prime meridian

7. Identify the term used to describe wind transportation materials by a bouncing motion of particles.

A. suspension

B. deflation

C. saltation

D. abrasion

Use the geologic cross section below to answer Questions 8 and 9.

8. Assuming the rock layers shown are in the same orientation that they were deposited, which layer is the oldest?

A. shale

B. sandstone

C. volcanic ash

D. limestone

9. Which layer would be most helpful to you in determining the absolute age of these rocks?

A. shale

B. sandstone

C. volcanic ash

D. limestone

10. Which is NOT a feature of valley glaciers?

A. cirque

B. loess

C. moraine

Wind Transport Geology

Short Answer

Use the table below to answer Questions 11 and 12.


Final Color of Litmus Paper



lemon juice






11. What conclusions can you draw from the results of the litmus paper tests on the liquids as shown in the table?

12. If an unknown liquid did not change the color of litmus paper, what could you infer?

13. Describe the formation of soil.

14. Evaluate the negative impact of building in coastal-dune areas.

15. Distinguish between weathering and erosion.

16. What is one reason granite is commonly used in construction?

17. What are some benefits of communicating scientific results?

18. What are isotopes of an element?

Reading for Comprehension

Arctic Ice Levels

The amount of sea ice in the Arctic shrank dramatically this summer and is now smaller than it has been in a century of record-keeping, new research reveals. Scientists say rising temperatures brought on by human-made global warming is probably to blame for the melting trend. Most scientists attribute this warming to human activities such as burning fossil fuels. The shift could lead to increased coastal erosion and shrinking of habitat for animals like polar bears. Melting sea ice may lead to greater coastal erosion, because Arctic storms could produce much larger waves on the open ocean. As the sea ice continues to melt, polar habitat also continues to shrink. If the decline in sea ice continued, summers in the Arctic could become completely ice-free before the end of this century, scientists warn.

Article obtained from Lovgren, S. Arctic ice levels at record low, may keep melting, study warns. National Geographic News. October 3, 2005.

19. How could melting sea ice possibly lead to greater coastal erosion?

A. Polar bears would use more of the land.

B. Humans would use the exposed land for fossil fuels.

C. It would increase global temperatures, ruining the land.

D. Arctic storms could produce larger waves to erode the shoreline.

20. What is causing the sea ice to melt?

A. increased temperatures

B. arctic storms

C. polar bears

D. time

21. What can be inferred from this text?

18. What are isotopes of an element?


If You Missed Question . . .



















Review Section . . .


















Standardized Test Practice

Chapter 8 • Assessment 221

Surface Water

BIGi Idea

Surface water moves materials produced by weathering and shapes the surface of Earth.

9.1 Surface Water Movement fT^HEEH Running water is an agent of erosion, carrying sediments in streams and rivers and depositing them downstream.

9.2 Stream Developmen

Streams erode paths through sediment and rock, forming V-shaped stream valleys.

9.3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands

H^Biaa As the amount of water changes and the amount of sediments increases, lakes can be transformed into wetlands and eventually into dry land.


The United States has approximately 5,600,000 km of rivers.

The Missouri River is about 4087 km long, making it the longest river in North America.

The Mississippi River Basin drains 41 percent of the United States.

9.2 Stream Developmen

Streams erode paths through sediment and rock, forming V-shaped stream valleys.

Stream Erosion


How does water infiltrate?

When water soaks into the ground, it moves at different rates through the different materials that make up Earth's surface.

Procedure ^ EH IC

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Place a small window screen on each of two clear plastic shoe boxes.

3. Place an 8-cm x 16-cm clump of grass or sod on one screen.

4. Place an 8-cm x 16-cm clump of barren soil on the other screen.

5. Lightly sprinkle 500 mL of water on each clump.

6. Observe the clumps for 5 min.

7. Measure the amount of water in each box.


1. Describe what happens to the water after 5 min.

2. Infer the reason for any differences in the amount of water collected in each box.

Stream Development Make this Foldable that features the steps in stream development.

STEP 1 Fold three sheets of notebook paper in half horizontally to find the middle. Holding two of the sheets together, make a 3-cm cut at the fold line on each side of the paper.

STEP 2 On the third sheet, cut along the fold line to within 3-cm of each edge.

STEP 3 Slip the first two sheets through the cut in the third sheet to make a six-page book.

STEP 4 Label your book Stream Development.

STEP 3 Slip the first two sheets through the cut in the third sheet to make a six-page book.

Stream Development



Visit to ^ study entire chapters online;

► explore h Mqjj^ animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities;

► review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

IrfdliMJIi* Use this Foldable with Section 9.2.

As you read this section, use the pages of your Foldable to describe and illustrate the steps in stream development.

STEP 4 Label your book Stream Development.

Section 9.1


I Describe how surface water can move weathered materials. I Explain how a stream carries its load.

I Describe how a floodplain develops.

Review Vocabulary solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the component particles cannot be distinguished

New Vocabulary runoff watershed divide suspension bed load discharge flood floodplain

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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  • Negisti
    Where are large deposits of glacial loess primarily found?
    8 years ago
  • riley
    Which statement best describes sediments deposited by glaciers and rivers?
    8 years ago
    What are elongated landforms made of older moraines over which glaciers move?
    8 years ago
  • Justiina
    What are elongated landforms made of older moraines over which glaciers move Chapter 8?
    6 years ago
  • Tapio
    Which has the fastest movement, solifluction, creep, mudflow, avalanche?
    6 years ago
    Which mass movement is most likely to occur in semiarid experiences intense but brief rainstorms?
    6 years ago
  • amina
    Which particles can wind move most easily?
    4 years ago

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