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Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

1. Which condition would create the most runoff?

A. land covered with vegetation

B. plants in densely packed soil

C. light precipitation

D. soil with a high percentage of sand

Use the photo below to answer Questions 2 and 3.

Wind Abrasion

2. What most likely caused the odd shape of the boulder?

A. a rock slide C. wind deflation

B. glacier erosion D. wind abrasion

3. What are some clues to help scientists determine the method of erosion for this boulder?

A. The boulder has smooth surfaces with smooth edges.

B. The boulder has a coarse surface.

C. The boulder is polished on the windward side.

D. The boulder has a rough surface and rough edges.

4. If you were creating a model of rock formation, you would represent the different layers of rock. In this model, which type of rock would represent particles that have been compressed and hardened?

A. sedimentary C. igneous

B. volcanic D. intrusive

5. As the velocity of a stream decreases, which transported particle size would settle to the stream's bottom first?

A. clay C. pebble

6. Which condition helps determine the quality of lake water?

A. the amount of nitrogen

B. the amount of dissolved calcium carbonate

C. the amount of potassium

D. the amount of dissolved oxygen

7. Which state of matter are all minerals?

A. solids C. gases

B. liquids D. plasma

Use the table below to answer Questions 8-10.

Horizon

Percent

Sand

Silt

Clay

A

16.2

54.4

29.4

B

10.5

50.2

39.3

C

31.4

48.4

20.2

R (bedrock)

31.7

50.1

18.2

8. What inferences can scientists make from this soil profile?

A. The soil is newly layered.

B. The soil is well developed and mature.

C. The soil is poorly developed.

D. The soil profile came from the West.

9. Which horizon most likely contains the hard material known as hardpan?

A. A-horizon C. C-horizon

B. B-horizon D. R-horizon

10. O-horizon was not listed on this table. What could be the reason?

A. It was too deep to be studied.

B. It was too shallow to be studied.

C. It was insignificant to the study containing only humus and leaf litter.

D. It only contained sand and not silt or clay.

Short Answer

Use the table below to answer Questions 11 and 12.

Mineral Characteristics

Mineral

Color

Streak

Hardness

Specific Gravity

Sulfur

yellow

yellow

2

2.1

Schorl

black

white

7

3.2

Topaz

blue

colorless

9

3.6

Zinc

white

light gray

2

6.9

11. How is this table organized?

12. From this table, what can you infer about hardness and specific gravity?

13. According to the water cycle, what happens after water molecules evaporate and condense into cloud droplets?

14. How does limestone form?

15. What causes dune migration?

16. What are some possible strategies a road construction crew could use to protect highways located at the bottom of steep slopes susceptible to landslides?

Reading for Comprehension

Inland Flooding

According to the National Weather Service, inland flooding is one of the deadliest effects of hurricanes. Below is a list of steps to help reduce your risk of being caught in inland flooding when you hear about a potential hurricane and live in a potential flood zone.

• If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Move to a safe area before access is cut off by flood water.

• Keep abreast of road conditions through the news media.

• Do not attempt to cross flowing water. As little as six inches of water might cause you to lose control of your vehicle—two feet of water will carry most cars away.

• Develop a flood emergency action plan with your community leaders.

Article obtained from: Hurricane flooding: a deadly danger. NOAA's National Weather Service. March 2001. (Online resource accessed October 2006)

17. What is important to know about water?

A. It is safe to drive on a road with flowing water.

B. Flowing water is safer than standing water.

C. Six inches of water will do no harm.

D. Two feet of water can carry most cars away.

18. According to the text, which is not a step to take to ensure your safety from inland flooding?

A. Do not attempt to cross flowing water.

B. Move to the highest level of your house.

C. Evacuate when advised to do so.

D. Develop a flood emergency action plan.

19. What is the goal of the National Weather Service in distributing this list?

A. to discuss hurricanes

B. to offer advice for people to read and use if they want

C. to inform people of the hazards of inland flooding and offer steps to protect themselves

D. to scare people

20. Suppose you live in a flood zone that could possibly be affected by inland flooding. Develop a strategy that you would follow to stay safe.

NEED EXTRA HELP?

If You Missed Question . . .

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Review Section . . .

9.1

2.2

2.2

4.1

9.2

9.3

4.1

7.3

7.3

7.3

4.1

4.1

9.1

8.2

8.2

Standardized Test Practice glencoe.com

Chapter 9 • Assessment 249

BIG tIdea

Precipitation and infiltration contribute to groundwater, which is stored in underground reservoirs until it surfaces as a spring or is drawn from a well.

10.1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater

[¡^jjEJEa Groundwater reservoirs provide water to streams and wetlands wherever the water table intersects the surface of the ground.

10.2 Groundwater Weathering and Deposition

H^iBiaa Chemical weathering of limestone by water causes the characteristic topography of karst areas.

10.3 Groundwater Supply

R^beh Water is not always available in the quantities and in the locations where it is needed and might be compromised by pollution.

GeoFacts

The Strokkur geyser in Iceland erupts every 5 to 10 minutes.

The eruptions of Strokkur geyser reach heights of more than 30 m.

There are around 1000 geysers in the world.

LAUNCH L

How is water stored underground?

Beneath your feet, there are vast amounts of water. This water fills in the pore spaces and fractures in rock and unconsolidated sediment. In this activity, you will model groundwater storage.

Procedure

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Fill a 250-mL graduated cylinder with fine, dry sand.

3. Fill another 250-mL graduated cylinder with water.

4. Pour water from the second cylinder into the sand-filled cylinder until the water level is flush with the surface of the sand. Measure and record the volume of saturated sand in the cylinder.

5. Measure and record how much water is left in the second cylinder.

6. Repeat the experiment twice using coarse sand and clay.

Analysis

1. Describe how much water is present in the saturated fine sand, coarse sand, and clay.

2. Calculate the ratio of water volume to the volume of fine sand, coarse sand, and clay, and express the value as a percentage.

3. Infer how many liters of water could be stored in a cubic meter of each sediment.

Threats to the Water Supply

Make this Foldable to summarize the major problems that threaten groundwater supplies.

STEP 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half lengthwise.

STEP 2 Fold the sheet in half and then into thirds.

STEP 3 Unfold and cut along the fold lines of the top flap to make six tabs.

STEP 4 Label the tabs as you read.

STEP 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half lengthwise.

STEP 2 Fold the sheet in half and then into thirds.

STEP 3 Unfold and cut along the fold lines of the top flap to make six tabs.

STEP 4 Label the tabs as you read.

IrfdliMJIi* Use this Foldable with Section 10.3.

As you read this section, summarize the problems that can threaten groundwater.

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

explore CO16*** ^ WOtt^n animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities; ^ review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

explore CO16*** ^ WOtt^n animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities; ^ review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Chapiter 10) • Groundwater 251

Doug Martin

Section 10.1

Objectives

I Describe how groundwater storage and underground movement relate to the water cycle. I Illustrate an aquifer and an aquiclude. I Relate the components of aquifers with the presence of springs.

Review Vocabulary hydrologic cycle: a never-ending natural circulation of water through Earth's systems

New Vocabulary infiltration zone of saturation water table zone of aeration permeability aquifer aquiclude spring hot spring geyser

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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Responses

  • Jyrki
    Which condition would create the most runoff?
    8 years ago

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