Consultants

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Content Consultants

Content consultants each reviewed selected chapters of Science Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe for content accuracy and clarity.

Anastasia Chopelas, PhD

Research Professor of Earth and

Space Sciences University of Washington Seattle, WA

Diane Clayton, PhD

University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA

Sarah Gille, PhD

Associate Professor Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California San Diego San Diego, CA

Alan Gishlick, PhD

National Center for Science Education Oakland, CA

Jose Miguel Hurtado, PhD

Associate Professor of Geology University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX

Monika Kress, PhD Assistant Professor of Physics and Astronomy San Jose State University San Jose, CA

Amy Leventer, PhD

Associate Professor of Geology Colgate University Hamilton, NY

Amala Mahadevan, PhD

Associate Research Professor Department of Earth Sciences Boston University Boston, MA

Janet Herman, PhD

Professor and Director of Program of Interdisciplinary Research in Contaminant Hydrogeology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA

David Ho, PhD

Storke-Doherty Lecturer & Doherty Associate Research Scientist Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University New York, NY

Nathan Niemi, PhD

Assistant Professor of Geological Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI

Anne Raymond, PhD

Professor of Geology and Geophysics Texas A&M University College Station, TX

Contents

Your book is divided into chapters that are organized around Themes, Big Ideas, and Main Ideas of Earth Science.

1 are overarching concepts used throughout the entire book that help you tie what you learn together. They help you see the connections among major ideas and concepts.

BIG (Ideas appear in each chapter and help you focus on topics within the themes. The Big Ideas are broken down even further into Main Ideas.

draw you into more specific details about Earth science. All the Main Ideas of a chapter add up to the chapter's Big Idea.

THEMES

Change Structures Geologic Time

Systems Scientific Inquiry

BIG (Idea one per chapter

|MAIN<<(Idea| one per section

Unit 1

Student Guide

Reading for Information xxii

Scavenger Hunt xxv

Earth Science 2

Chapter 1

The Nature of Science 4

Section 1 Earth Science 6

Section 2 Methods of Scientists 10

Section 3 Communication in Science 17

Chapter 2

Mapping Our World 28

Section 1 Latitude and Longitude 30

Section 2 Types of Maps 34

Section 3 Remote Sensing 41

Composition of Earth 56

Chapter 3

Matter and Change 58

Section 1 Matter 60

Section 2 Combining Matter 66

Section 3 States of Matter 73

Chapter 4

Minerals 84

Section 1 What is a mineral? 86

Section 2 Types of Minerals 96

Chapter 5

Igneous Rocks 110

Section 1 What are igneous rocks? 112

Section 2 Classification of Igneous Rocks 118

Chapter 6

Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks 132

Section 1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 134

Section 2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks 141

Section 3 Metamorphic Rocks 145

Unit 3

Surface Processes on Earth 160

Chapter 7

Weathering, Erosion, and Soil 162

Section 1 Weathering 164

Section 2 Erosion and Deposition 171

Section 3 Soil 176

Chapter 8

Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers 192

Section 1 Mass Movements 194

Section 2 Wind 201

Section 3 Glaciers 207

Chapter 9

Surface Water 222

Section 1 Surface Water Movement 224

Section 2 Stream Development 232

Section 3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands 238

Chapter 10

Groundwater 250

Section 1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater 252

Section 2 Groundwater Weathering and Deposition 259

Section 3 Groundwater Supply 263

Unit 4

The Atmosphere and the Oceans 278

Chapter 11

Atmosphere 280

Section 1 Atmospheric Basics 282

Section 2 Properties of the Atmosphere 289

Section 3 Clouds and Precipitation 297

Chapter 12

Meteorology 312

Section 1 The Causes of Weather 314

Section 2 Weather Systems 318

Section 3 Gathering Weather Data 324

Section 4 Weather Analysis and Prediction 329

Chapter 13

The Nature of Storms 342

Section 1 Thunderstorms 344

Section 2 Severe Thunderstorms 350

Section 3 Tropical Storms 355

Section 4 Recurrent Weather 361

Chapter 14

Climate 374

Section 1 Defining Climate 376

Section 2 Climate Classification 381

Section 3 Climatic Changes 387

Section 4 Impact of Human Activities 393

Chapter 15

Earth's Oceans 404

Section 1 An Overview of Oceans 406

Section 2 Seawater 413

Section 3 Ocean Movements 421

Chapter 16

The Marine Environment 436

Section 1 Shoreline Features 438

Section 2 Seafloor Features 447

Unit 5

The Dynamic Earth

Chapter 17

Plate Tectonics 466

Section 1 Drifting Continents 468

Section 2 Seafloor Spreading 473

Section 3 Plate Boundaries 480

Section 4 Causes of Plate Motions 486

Chapter 18

Volcanism 498

Section 1 Volcanoes 500

Section 2 Eruptions 508

Section 3 Intrusive Activity 514

Chapter 19

Earthquakes 526

Section 1 Forces Within Earth 528

Section 2 Seismic Waves and Earth's Interior 534

Section 3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes ... 539 Section 4 Earthquakes and Society 545

Chapter 20

Mountain Building 560

Section 1 Crust-Mantle Relationships 562

Section 2 Orogeny 567

Section 3 Other Types of Mountain Building 574

Unit 6

Geologic Time 586

Chapter 21

Fossils and the Rock Record 588

Section 1 The Rock Record 590

Section 2 Relative-Age Dating 595

Section 3 Absolute-Age Dating 601

Section 4 Fossil Remains 606

Chapter 22

The Precambrian Earth 618

Section 1 Early Earth 620

Section 2 Formation of the Crust and Continents 623

Section 3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans 628

Section 4 Early Life on Earth 633

Chapter 23

The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras 646

Section 1 The Paleozoic Era 648

Section 2 The Mesozoic Era 655

Section 3 The Cenozoic Era 660

Unit 7

Resources and the Environment 674

Chapter 24

Earth Resources 676

Section 1 Natural Resources 678

Section 2 Resources from Earth's Crust 682

Section 3 Air Resources 687

Section 4 Water Resources 693

Chapter 25

Energy Resources 706

Section 1 Conventional Energy Resources 708

Section 2 Alternative Energy Resources 714

Section 3 Conservation of Energy Resources 720

Chapter 26

Human Impact on Resources 732

Section 1 Populations and the Use of

Natural Resources 734

Section 2 Human Impact on Land Resources 737

Section 3 Human Impact on Air Resources 743

Section 4 Human Impact on Water Resources 748

Beyond Earth 760

Chapter 27

The Sun-Earth-Moon System 762

Section 1 Tools of Astronomy 764

Section 2 The Moon 770

Section 3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System 775

Chapter 28

Our Solar System 794

Section 1 Formation of the Solar System 796

Section 2 The Inner Planets 804

Section 3 The Outer Planets 811

Section 4 Other Solar System Objects 816

Chapter 29

Stars 828

Section 1 The Sun 830

Section 2 Measuring the Stars 837

Section 3 Stellar Evolution 847

Chapter 30

Galaxies and the Universe 860

Section 1 The Milky Way Galaxy 862

Section 2 Other Galaxies in the Universe 869

Section 3 Cosmology 878

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