Assessment

Vocabulary Review

The sentences below are incorrect. Make each sentence correct by replacing the italicized word or phrase with a vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

1. Gases escape from magma as it flows out onto Earth's surface.

2. Mohs scale of hardness describes the order in which minerals crystallize.

3. Lava forms deep beneath Earth's crust.

Complete the sentences by filling in the blank with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

4. An igneous texture characterized by large crystals embedded in a fine-grained background is called a_.

5. Igneous rocks that form under conditions of fast cooling are said to be_.

6. Light-colored rocks with large crystals are said to be_.

Understand Key Concepts

7. Which is the first mineral to form in cooling magma?

A. quartz C. potassium feldspar

B. mica D. olivine

Use the diagram below to answer Question 8.

Glencoe Earth Science Partial Melting

8. Which process is occurring in the diagram?

A. fractional separation

B. crystal separation

C. fractional crystallization

D. partial melting

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9. Which minerals are associated with the right-hand branch of Bowen's reaction series?

A. olivine and pyroxene

B. feldspars

C. mica and feldspars

D. quartz and biotite

10. Which magma type contains the greatest amount of silica?

A. basaltic C. rhyolitic

B. andesitic D. peridotic

11. Which does not affect the formation of magma?

A. volume C. pressure

B. temperature D. mineral composition

12. Which extrusive rock has the same composition as andesite?

A. granite C. obsidian

B. basalt D. diorite

Use the figure below to answer Question 13.

Obsidian Bowens Reaction Series

13. Which process formed this rock?

A. slow cooling

B. fast cooling

C. very fast cooling

D. slow, then fast cooling

14. Which type of ultrabasic rock sometimes contains diamonds?

A. pegmatite

B. kimberlite

C. granite

D. rhyolite

Chapter 5 • Assessment 127

Breck P. Kent/Animals Animals

Chapter g Assessment

15. What effect does a fast cooling rate have on grain size in igneous rocks?

A. It forms fine-grained crystals.

B. It forms large-grained crystals.

C. It forms light crystals.

D. It forms dark crystals.

16. What term describes igneous rocks that crystallize inside Earth?

A. magma

B. intrusive

C. lava

D. extrusive

17. Which minerals are most common in granite?

A. quartz and feldspar

B. plagioclase feldspar and amphibole

C. olivine and pyroxene

D. quartz and olivine

Constructed Response

18. List some uses of igneous rocks in the construction industry.

19. Explain how and why the plagioclase feldspar in basaltic rocks differs from that in granitic rocks.

Use the photos below to answer Questions 20 and 21.

Vesicular Basalt

20. Draw a flowchart documenting the formation of the holes in this sample of vesicular basalt.

21. Speculate on the reasons that samples of pumice are able to float in water.

128 Chapter 5 • Assessment

(t)Breck P. Kent/Animals Animals, (b)Jerome Wyckoff/Animals Animals

22. Illustrate how fractional crystallization changes the composition of magma, using the formation of iron-rich olivine to illustrate the point.

23. Apply the concepts of temperature and crystallization to explain why magma is often described as a slushy mixture of crystals and molten rock.

Use the table below to answer Questions 24 and 25.

Rock Composition

Mineral

Mineral Percentage

Rock

Rock

Rock

Rock

1

2

3

4

Quartz

S

3S

O

O

Potassium

O

1S

O

O

feldspar

Plagioclase feldspar

SS

2S

O

SS

Biotite

1S

1S

O

1O

Amphibole

2S

1O

O

3O

Pyroxene

O

O

4O

S

Olivine

O

O

6O

O

24. Analyze the data in the table, and explain which rock is most likely granite.

25. Incorporate Use the data for Rock 4 and the fact that it is fine-grained to determine the name of Rock 4.

Think Critically

26. Compare obsidian and granite to explain why granite is more easily carved into statues and monuments.

27. Evaluate this statement: It is possible for magma to have a higher silica content than the rock that forms from it.

28. Apply what you know about mineral hardness to explain why stainless steel knives do not harm granite cutting boards.

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Chapter Test glencoe.com

Chapter g Assessment

29. Infer Kimberlites are the source of most diamonds. Infer why scientists study kimberlites to learn more about Earth's mantle.

30. Assess Rocks generally consist of minerals. When molten rock is chilled rapidly, it becomes a glass. Volcanic glass is an extrusive igneous rock. Assess whether this rock contains minerals. Explain your answer. [Hint: Recall the definition of a mineral from Chapter 4.]

31. Infer why rocks that are composed of minerals that crystallize first according to Bowen's reaction series are unstable and break down quickly at Earth's surface.

32. Hypothesize what the Palisade Sill would look like if the magma that formed it was granitic in composition.

Concept Mapping

33. Use the following terms to create a concept map showing the relationship among position in Earth's crust and mantle, crystal size, and rock type: fast, slow, slowest, intrusive, extrusive, magma, lava, granite, rhyolite, basalt, gabbro, obsidian, and pumice.

Challenge Question

Use the diagram below to answer Question 34.

Use the diagram below to answer Question 34.

Palisades Sill Cross Section

34. Determine The diagram shows a cross section of the Leopard Lode, an igneous rock unit in Wyoming. Determine the formation history of this rock unit.

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Additional Assessment

35. EHZE232> Earth Science Building stone is expensive. Suppose you are selling kitchen coun-tertops that look like granite, but consist of a less-expensive synthetic material. List the specific characteristics of granite that your customers would look for in the imitation granite.

Document-Based Questions

Data obtained from: Gerya, T.V., et al. 2003. Cold fingers in a hot magma: numerical modeling of country-rock diapirs in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Geology 31 (9): 753.

The Bushveld Complex is the world's largest layered intrusion. It was injected as a hot, dense basaltic magma between overlying volcanic and underlying sedimentary rocks. Modeling of this event indicates that finger-shaped bodies of heated, metamorphosed sedimentary rocks subsequently intruded the overlying igneous layers. The model assumed the igneous rock properties shown in the table.

Igneous Rock Properties

Rock Type

(°C)

Granitic

2700 (solid) 2400 (molten)

675

925

Basaltic/ ultrabasic

3000 (solid) 2900 (molten)

950

1100

36. Compare and contrast the density of solid and molten rocks in this model.

37. Speculate about why the overlying rhyolitic rocks could not penetrate, or sink into, the basaltic magma.

38. Infer the meaning of the terms liquidus and soli-dus. At what temperature do the first crystals in granitic rocks melt?

Cumulative Review

39. What is a molecule? (Chapter 3)

40. Name a gemstone that consists of corundum. (Chapter 4)

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

Use the table below to answer Questions 1 and 2.

Characteristics of Rocks

Color

Silica Content

Composition

Rock A

light

high

quartz and feldspars

Rock B

dark

low

iron and magnesium

1. Rock A is most likely what kind of rock?

A. felsic

B. mafic

C. ultramafic

D. intermediate

2. Which type of rock is Rock B?

A. granite

B. diorite

C. gabbro

D. pegmatite

3. Which is most abundant in magma and has the greatest effect on its characteristics?

D. SiO2

4. Which process describes how different minerals form at different rates?

A. partial melting

B. Bowen's reaction series

C. fractional crystallization

D. geothermal gradient

5. Which is NOT a feature used for identifying minerals?

A. hardness

B. color

C. density

D. volume

6. Which is distorted on a Mercator projection map?

A. shapes of the landmasses

B. areas of the landmasses

C. latitude lines

D. longitude lines

Use the graph below to answer Questions 7 and <

High

c it

Medium

7. What relationship can be inferred from the graph?

A. Magmas that have more silica are more viscous.

B. Magmas that have less silica are more viscous.

C. Magmas always have low viscosity.

D. There is no relationship between silica content and viscosity.

8. Which is a true statement about granitic magma?

A. Granitic magma is heavier than the other two types of magma.

B. Granitic magma is lighter than the other two types of magma.

C. Granitic magma flows more quickly than the other two types of magma.

D. Granitic magma flows more slowly than the other two types of magma.

9. Which is a combination of two or more components that retain their identities?

A. chemical C. mixture

B. solution D. element

10. Which is the lightest of all atoms?

A. uranium atom C. carbon atom

B. oxygen atom D. hydrogen atom

Earth

High

Medium

Illustration Uranium Atom

Short Answer

Use the picture below to answer Questions 11-13.

Use the picture below to answer Questions 11-13.

Illustration Uranium Atom

11. Name the type of igneous rock located at the bottom of the picture, and state a common example of that type of rock and explain how this rock is formed.

12. Name the type of igneous rock located at the top of the picture and state a common example of that type of rock and explain how this type of rock is formed.

13. Contrast the formation of the two types of igneous rock.

14. What does it mean to say that minerals are naturally occurring and inorganic?

15. Why are some minerals classified as gems?

16. Why are both latitude and longitude lines necessary when identifying a location?

Reading for Comprehension

Marianas Island Research

Billowing ash plumes, molten sulfur droplets, feisty shrimp feasting on fish killed by noxious gases, and red lava jetting from a vent are all part of the action recently filmed at an underwater volcano in the western Pacific Ocean. The images are the first ever direct observations of an active, submarine-arc volcano. Unlike volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges, island-arc volcanoes can remain fixed over their magma sources for thousands of years, allowing them to sometimes grow above water level and become islands. The new studies at the Marianas Islands are giving scientists a firsthand look into this formation process. The volcano has been going through nearly constant low-level eruptions since at least 2004, when it was first observed, Embley says. It could potentially keep erupting for decades, giving scientists the opportunity to monitor its growth.

Article obtained from: Roach, J. "Deep-Sea Volcano Erupts on Film—A First" National Geographic News. 24 May 2006.

17. What are the benefits of the new studies at the Marianas Islands?

A. The studies give scientists a firsthand look into the formation process.

B. The studies reveal that the volcano could potentially keep erupting for decades.

C. The studies show life near the vent.

D. The studies are the first ever direct observations of an active submarine arc-volcano.

18. What can you infer from this passage?

A. Volcanoes constantly erupt at some level of intensity.

B. Volcanic activity occurs only at mid-ocean ridges.

C. Shrimp only eat fish killed by noxious gasses.

D. There are many active submarine volcanoes.

NEED EXTRA HELP?

If You Missed Question . . .

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Review Section . . .

5.2

5.2

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Chapter 5 • Assessment 131

Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks

BIG tIdea

Most rocks are formed from preexisting rocks through external and internal geologic processes.

6.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks i man<beh Sediments produced by weathering and erosion form sedimentary rocks through the process of lithification.

6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks fT^HBEH Sedimentary rocks are classified by their mode of formation.

6.3 Metamorphic Rocks R^hbeh Metamorphic rocks form when preexisting rocks are exposed to increases in temperature and pressure and to hydrothermal solutions.

GeoFacts

The exterior of the Empire State Building is made of limestone, marble, granite, and metal.

5,663 m3 of Indian limestone and granite, 929 m2 of Rose Famosa and Estrallante marble, and 27,870 m2 of Hauteville and Rocheron marble were used in the building's construction.

Overall, the Empire State Building weighs 331,122.43 metric tons.

Fractional Crystallization Geology

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Responses

  • Kristine
    Which rock undergoes the slowest cooling rate, pumice, gabbro, obsidian, basalt?
    8 years ago
  • Anja
    Which type of ultrabasic rock sometimes contains diamonds?
    8 years ago
  • jo
    Which minerals are associated with righthand branch of bowen's reaction series?
    8 years ago
  • elen
    What term describes igneous rock that crystallize inside earth?
    8 years ago
  • juuso
    What term describes igneous rocks that crystallize inside earth?
    8 years ago
  • jouko
    Which process is occurring in the diagram a. fractional separation?
    8 years ago
  • janice
    Which extrusive rock has the same composition as andesite?
    8 years ago
  • margaret
    Why do you think that pumice has crystals and has holes of air in it?
    8 years ago
  • Dale
    Which minerals are associated with the right hand branch of the bowens reaction series?
    8 years ago
  • Why is magma described as a slushy mixture of crystals and molten rock?
    8 years ago
  • patricia cruz
    Which lava has the greatest amount of silica?
    8 years ago
  • halfred
    What term describes ignious rocks the crystalize inside earth?
    8 years ago
  • dino
    What grains does andesite has?
    7 years ago
  • demsas
    Did gabbro or pumice undergo the slowest cooling rate?
    6 years ago
  • claudia
    Which is not a featureused for idetifying minerals?
    6 years ago
  • rufus
    What is leopard lode an igneous rock unit?
    5 years ago
  • frodo
    What is an igneous texture characterized by large crystals embedded in a fine grained background?
    4 years ago
  • aulis
    What scale describes the order in which minerals crystallize?
    4 years ago
  • Klaudia
    Which magma type contains the greatest amount of silica?
    3 years ago
  • rhett
    What term describes igneous rocks that crystallize (form) inside Earth?
    1 year ago

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