Choose the vocabulary term from the Study Guide that best describes each phrase.
1. influenced by vegetation, precipitation, soil composition, and slope
2. the land area whose water drains into a stream
3. sediments that are transported by streams but are too large to be held up in suspension
4. the measure of the volume of stream water that flows over a particular location within a given period of time
5. the triangular deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water such as a lake or ocean
6. the narrow channel carved over time by the water of a stream into sediment or rock layers
7. the process by which a stream resumes downcut-ting toward its base level
The sentences below include terms that have been used incorrectly. Make the sentences true by replacing each italicized word with a vocabulary term from the Study
8. A depression that receives more water than is removed will exist as a stream for a long period of time.
9. Enrichment is the process by which lakes become rich in nutrients, resulting in a change in the kinds of organisms in the lake.
10. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all types of inundated areas.
11. Solution is the method of transport for all particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a stream's moving water.
12. The area that extends from a stream's bank and is covered by excess water during times of flooding is known as a wetland.
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Understand Key Concepts
13. Which scenario most likely formed most large lakes in North America and Europe?
A. Lakes formed from stream meanders that were cut off.
B. Landslides blocked the flow of streams, creating lakes.
C. Glacial activity on continental masses scoured the landscape and left depressions behind.
D. Reservoirs were created for the purpose of storing water for communities.
14. What is the driving force of a stream?
Use the figure below to answer Question 15.
15. Which part of a river is shown?
A. the headwater
B. the main channel
C. the streambed
D. the mouth
16. When does downcutting of the streambed stop during stream formation?
A. when the water reaches a porous layer
B. when the water reaches a base level
C. when the water reaches a new level
D. when the water reaches a nonpermeable layer
Chapter 9 • Assessment 245
Use the figure below to answer Question 17.
17. How did this terrain feature form?
A. It formed by a meander of a stream that has been cut off.
B. It formed from a glacier that scoured out the land.
C. It is the result of a flood.
D. It is the result of eutrophication.
18. What type of streams form V-shaped valleys?
A. streams that carry a lot of sediment
B. streams that are far from ultimate base level
C. streams that meander
D. streams that carry no bed load
19. Which is not a way in which lakes are typically formed?
A. from cutoff meanders of streams
B. from asteroid craters
C. from landslides that block rivers
D. from glacial carving
20. Which substance plays a major role in the eutro-phication process?
B. phosphate D. salt
21. Which factors determine the discharge of a stream?
A. width, length, depth
B. width, length, velocity
C. width, depth, velocity
D. length, depth, runoff
22. Which process would result in rejuvenation of a stream?
A. lifting of existing base level
B. lowering of existing base level
C. lowering of the land
D. lifting of the stream banks
246 Chapter 9 • Assessment
(l)Dominique Braud/Animals Animals, (r)Staffan Widstrand/CORBIS
23. Which characteristic of the soil in a depression is most important in allowing the formation of a lake?
A. high content of organic material
B. high content of mostly of inorganic material
C. gravelly soil
24. If a stream is carrying sand, large boulders, clay, and small pebbles, which type of particle is deposited last as the stream begins to slow down?
C. large boulders
D. small pebbles
25. Compare and contrast the formation of a river delta to an alluvial fan.
Use the following aerial view of a stream to answer Questions 26 to 28.
26. Identify the location at which the stream has the greatest velocity.
27. Identify the location at which deposition most actively occurs.
28. Identify the location at which erosion most actively occurs.
29. Calculate the discharge of a stream that has a velocity of 300 m/s and is 25 m wide and 3 m deep.
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Chapter g Assessment
30. Analyze how water in a stream is related to water in the atmosphere.
Use the figure below to answer Question 31.
31. Interpret the features in this pond in terms of the processes that might have formed them.
32. Hypothesize how an increase in a river's turbulence could decrease its bed load.
33. Analyze how specific soil characteristics determine how much water from precipitation infiltrates or runs off.
34. Infer why upstream tributaries often have relatively small yet turbulent flow, whereas downstream portions usually have larger but smooth-flowing discharges.
35. Discuss which areas of a stream are most likely to contain fertile soil.
36. Construct a concept map of the parts of the water cycle and illustrate the relationships among them.
37. Recommend measures that a town whose waste-water runs into a large lake should take to ensure the long-term quality of its lake water.
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38. ®HZ222Z32>Earth Science Write a newspaper article to explain recent flood destruction in your town. In the article, explain how erosion and transportation of sediment might be different during a flood.
Data obtained from: Varis, O. 2005. Are floods growing? Ambio 34 (August): 478-480.
Dramatic changes in river flow have taken place with water flow to the sea in China's Huang He River, spanning a period of almost 30 years.
100 50 0
39. Based on the graph, beginning in approximately what year were the first signs evident of a pattern of progressively decreasing river flow?
40. In the worst year of records presented, approximately how many days was there a water flow from the Huang He River to the sea?
41. What kinds of conditions might cause such dramatic reductions in water flow?
42. Describe a topographic map and its uses. (Chapter 2)
43. Which of the following is NOT a mineral: quartz, ice, coal, or native gold? (Chapter 4)
44. Explain how water affects the process of mass movement. (Chapter 8)
Chapter 9 • Assessment 247
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