Apply Your Skill

Design Using what you have learned in this lab and in the chapter, develop a plan for stopping the pollution plume. Make a map showing where your plan will be implemented. Indicate the sites where water quality will be monitored regularly.

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Geyser Pump Hydroponic

GeoLab 271

USGS

BIG (Idea

Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from glencoe.com.

BIG (Idea

Precipitation and infiltration contribute to groundwater, which is stored in underground reservoirs until it surfaces as a spring or is drawn from a well.

* Vocabulary

Key Concepts

Movement and Storage of Groundwater aquiclude (p. 255) aquifer (p. 255) geyser (p. 258) hot spring (p. 258) infiltration (p. 253) permeability (p. 255) spring (p. 256) water table (p. 254) zone of aeration (p. 254) zone of saturation (p. 254)

MAUWJdSa Groundwater reservoirs provide water to streams and wetlands wherever the water table intersects the surface of the ground.

• Some precipitation infiltrates the ground to become groundwater.

• Groundwater is stored below the water table in pore spaces of rocks and sediment.

• Groundwater moves through permeable layers called aquifers and is trapped by impermeable layers called aquicludes.

• Groundwater emerges from the ground where the water table intersects Earth's surface.

Section 10.2

Groundwater Weathering and Deposition cave (p. 260)

karst topography (p. 261) sinkhole (p. 261) stalactite (p. 261) stalagmite (p. 261)

IMAGES Chemical weathering of limestone by water causes the characteristic topography of karst areas.

• Groundwater dissolves limestone and forms underground caves.

• Sinkholes form at Earth's surface when bedrock is dissolved or when caves collapse.

• Irregular topography caused by groundwater dissolution is called karst topography.

• The precipitation of dissolved calcite forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves.

Section 10.3

Groundwater Supply artesian well (p. 264) drawdown (p. 263) recharge (p. 263) well (p. 263)

immn4BBB Water is not always available in the quantities and in the locations where it is needed and might be compromised by pollution.

• Wells are drilled into the zone of saturation to provide water.

• Overpumping of shallow wells produces cones of depression.

• Artesian wells tap confined aquifers in which water is under pressure.

• When groundwater withdrawal exceeds recharge, it lowers the water table.

• The most common sources of groundwater pollution include sewage, landfills, and other waste disposal sites.

272 Chapter 10 • Study Guide Seieneq^ Vocabulary PuzzleMaker glencoe.com

Vocabulary Review

Assessment

Vocabulary Review

Match each phrase with a vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

1. the depth below Earth's surface at which all pores in layers of soil are filled with water

2. the vertical movement of water through ground layers

3. all of the permeable layers at a location

4. the percentage of pore space in a material

Each of the following sentences is false. Make each sentence true by replacing the italicized words with a vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

5. Drawdown is produced in limestone regions that have sinkholes and sinking streams.

6. Stalagmites are icicle-shaped deposits hanging from the ceiling of caves.

7. Collapsing caves or dissolution of bedrock at the surface produce systems of caves.

Use what you know about the vocabulary terms found on the Study Guide to answer the following questions.

8. What two features are most often associated with the formation of springs?

9. What is the main difference between regular springs and artesian springs?

10. What are explosive hot springs that develop in volcanic areas?

Understand Key Concepts

11. Which single source of freshwater represents the largest volume of freshwater worldwide readily available for use by humans?

A. ice caps and glaciers

B. freshwater lakes

C. rivers and streams

D. groundwater deposits

12. What are distinct adjacent spaces within a cave system called?

A. chambers and passages

B. holes and mounds

C. sinkholes and pools

D. dripstone and depositions

13. What is the name of a layer of sediment or rock that does not allow water to pass through it?

A. a permeable layer

B. an aquiclude

C. an aquifer

D. a nonaqueous layer

Use the diagram below to answer Questions 14 and 15.

Aquifer And Groundwater Diagram Label

14. Which sequence of terms correctly labels the features shown in the diagram?

A. 2: water table, 3: impermeable layer

B. 3: surface zone, 4: impermeable layers

C. 1: zone of aeration, 3: zone of saturation

D. 1: zone of saturation, 3: zone of aeration

15. In which layer do the pores contain mostly air, although the materials are moist?

A. layer 1

B. layer 2

C. layer 3

D. layer 4

Earih j

Setone v Chapter Test glencoe.com

Chapter

Assessment

16. Which characteristics do most areas with karst topography share?

A. they are dry areas; limestone bedrock

B. they are humid areas; granite bedrock

C. they are humid areas; limestone bedrock

D. they are dry areas; granite bedrock

Use the graph below from a single well in North Carolina to answer Questions 17 and 18.

Groundwater Availability

1994 1996 Source: USGS

1998 2000 2002 2004 Year

1994 1996 Source: USGS

1998 2000 2002 2004 Year

17. Which statement is a logical conclusion that can be drawn from information in the graph?

A. From 1993 through 2003, groundwater availability at this well has increased.

B. From 2002 through 2003, the water table has fallen faster than from 1993 through 1994.

C. From 1993 through 1994, the water table has fallen less than from 2002 through 2003.

D. From 1993 through 2003, groundwater availability at this well has declined.

18. What year was the groundwater level the highest?

19. What forms when calcium ions precipitate?

A. calcite C. carbonic acid

B. acid rain D. hydrogen ions

20. What characteristic must porous rocks have for them to be permeable?

A. They must be above the water table.

B. Their pores must be large.

C. Their pores must be interconnected.

D. They must be below the water table.

274 Chapter 10 • Assessment

Use the diagram below to answer Question 21.

Use the diagram below to answer Question 21.

Artesian Well Diagram

21. What conditions are required for the formation of the spring?

A. defined areas of aeration, saturation, and an impermeable layer

B. an aquiclude holding water above defined areas of aeration and saturation

C. an aquiclude holding water above the main water table, and recharged from above

D. an aquiclude defining a main water table, and recharged from above

Constructed Response

22. Classify where the water table is located in a lake or wetland as opposed to a region with no standing water.

23. Identify the two features an aquifer must have to be a source of artesian water.

24. Compare and contrast how the water table differs between humid and arid regions.

25. Examine how the cement that binds the grains of sedimentary rocks affects the porosity and permeability of the rock.

26. Predict how a small aquifer will be affected by a multiyear drought.

27. Generalize whether caves are more likely to develop in a region containing limestone bedrock or sandstone bedrock. Justify your answer.

28. Explain why disposal of toxic waste into a sinkhole can pose serious hazards for local drinking water.

Chapter Test glencoe.com

Think Critically

29. Formulate an explanation for why stalactites have a tapering shape whereas stalagmites usually have less regular shapes and broader bases.

30. Hypothesize the effect that a severely lowered water table would have on the emergence of springs on a hillside.

31. Infer why caves often include dry chambers although most caves develop in the zone of saturation just below the water table.

Use the photo below to answer Question 32.

Ordinary Well And Artesian Well Diagram

32. Consider the water pouring from the cliffside. Diagram a scenario that would explain the role of groundwater in the photo.

33. Assess what would be an important consequence of sea level rise on groundwater supplies in coastal areas.

Concept Mapping

34. Make a concept map using the following terms: ordinary well, artesian well, aquiclude, confined, unconfined, and water-table aquifer.

Challenge Question

35. Infer the effect that increased atmospheric CO2 concentration might have on structures made of calcite and the development of karst topography.

Chapter JQ Assessment

Additional Assessment

36. CESEZEE* Earth Science Write a short story to demonstrate how shared groundwater resources could cause conflict between neighboring states or countries.

jj^JJk Document-Based Questions

Data obtained from: Lerch, R.N., C.M Wicks, and P.L. Moss. 2006. Hydrological characterization of two karst recharge areas in Boone County, Missouri. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 67 (3): 158-173.

In the graphs, monthly precipitation (bar graph) and monthly discharge (line graph) are shown for Devil's Icebox cave streams in Missouri.

Precipitation and Discharge for Devil's Icebox Cave Stream

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Responses

  • mark tang
    What conditions are required for the formation of springs aeration saturatoin aquiclude?
    6 years ago
  • rebecca
    Which layer do pores contain mostly air?
    4 years ago
  • Stuart
    What two features are most often associated with the formation of springs?
    4 years ago
  • anna maria
    How the water table differs between humid and arid regions?
    10 months ago
  • taina
    How the water table differs between humid and arid region?
    7 months ago

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