Q Study Guide

Surface water moves materials produced by weathering and shapes the surface of Earth. bed load (p. 228) discharge (p. 229) divide (p. 227) flood (p. 230) floodplain (p. 230) runoff (p. 225) suspension (p. 228) watershed (p. 227) MAUWJdSa Running water is an agent of erosion, carrying sediments in streams and rivers and depositing them downstream. Infiltration of water into the ground depends on the number of open pores. All the land area that drains into a stream system is the system's...

Properties of the Atmosphere

Earths Layers Temperature Fahrenheit

N4BEn Atmospheric properties, such as temperature, air pressure, and humidity describe weather conditions. Real-World Reading Link Have you noticed the weather today Maybe it is hot or cold, humid or dry, or even windy. These properties are always interacting and changing, and you can observe those changes every time you step outside. When you turn on the burner beneath a pot of water, thermal energy is transferred to the water and the temperature increases. Recall that particles in any...

Section Assessment

I At the same pressure, warmer air is less dense than cooler air. I Air moves from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure. I The dew point of air depends on the amount of water vapor the air contains. I Latent heat is released when water vapor condenses and when water freezes. 1. iman4TTHB Identify three properties of the atmosphere and describe how they vary with height in the atmosphere. 2. Explain what occurs during a temperature inversion. 3. Describe how the motion of...

National Geographic

Romqn Argentums

Figure 4.13 The tetrahedron formed by silicates contains four oxygen ions bonded to a central silicon atom. Chains, sheets, and complex structures form as the tetrahedra bond with other tetrahedra. These structures become the numerous silicate minerals that are present on Earth. Figure 4.13 The tetrahedron formed by silicates contains four oxygen ions bonded to a central silicon atom. Chains, sheets, and complex structures form as the tetrahedra bond with other tetrahedra. These structures...

Info

16 Visualizing the Ocean Floor 17 Visualizing Seafloor Spreading 18 Visualizing Eruptions 19 Visualizing Seismic Waves 20 Visualizing the Rise and Fall of 21 Visualizing the Geologic Time Scale 591 22 Visualizing Continent Formation 626 Range Nitrogen 25 Visualizing 26 Visualizing Agricultural Practices 741 27 Visualizing the Phases of the Moon 779 28 Visualizing the Kuiper Belt 817 29 Visualizing Star Groupings 839 30 Visualizing The Local Group 871 Check your understanding by viewing...

Problemsolving Lab

How do sediments move in a stream The critical velocity of water determines the size of particles that can be moved. The higher the stream velocity, the larger the particles that 1. Identify at what velocity flowing water would pick up a pebble. 2. Identify at what range of velocities flowing water would carry a pebble. 3. Infer which object would not fall into the same size range as a pebble an egg, a baseball, a golf ball, a table tennis ball, a volleyball, and a pea. How would you test your...

Of Disaster

Simulate Tsunami Model

Qn December 26, 2004, a massive earthquake rattled the seafloor of the Indian Ocean. A tsunami was generated by the earthquake which devastated the landscape and killed almost 230,000 people in 11 countries. After humanitarian efforts were underway, many Earth scientists mobilized to collect data before the area was changed by cleanup efforts. Planning the investigation Jose Borrero, an environmental engineer at University of Southern California, wanted to determine the height of the waves...

What Word Would Complete The Circle Below The Words Has Layers Called

Which year had the most precipitation 38. What is the general relationship between precipitation and discharge according to the graph 39. Identify an exception to the general relationship described in Question 38. Suggest a possible explanation for this exception. 40. Compare and contrast the ionic bond and the covalent bond. (Chapter 3) 41. What is the significance of the rock cycle (Chapter 6) 42. List factors that affect the rate of weathering. Underline the factor you think is the most...

Matter and Change

Periodic Table Electron Cloud

The variety of substances on Earth results from the way that atoms are arranged and combined. I liBRll Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. 3.2 Combining Matter n HBRH Atoms combine through electric forces, forming molecules and compounds. H biei All matter on Earth and in the universe occurs in the form of a solid, a liquid, a gas, or plasma. Only atmospheres that contain oxygen and water cause iron-bearing objects to rust. Therefore, the equipment that has been left on the Moon...

Consultants

Content consultants each reviewed selected chapters of Science Earth Science Geology, the Environment, and the Universe for content accuracy and clarity. Space Sciences University of Washington Seattle, WA University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA Associate Professor Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California San Diego San Diego, CA National Center for Science Education Oakland, CA Associate Professor of...

Mapping Disaster Zones

On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the New Orleans area, causing 81.2 billion in damage and resulting in the deaths of nearly 2000 people. With such widespread devastation, how did relief workers reach the damaged areas Mapping technologies helped workers to identify priority areas and create a plan to aid those affected. GPS and disaster relief Global Positioning System GPS satellites send signals back to Earth telling the receiver the exact location of the user. The satellites travel...

Liquid Crystal Displays

Polarization Digital Watch

You wake up in the morning, glance at your alarm clock, and get ready for school. You microwave your breakfast, grab your music player and dash out the door, checking your wristwatch as you go. Once at school, you pull out your calculator and get ready for the big math exam. Did you know you have used liquid crystal display LCD technology five times already LCD is common display technology, used often because it is thin, lightweight, and energy efficient. What is a liquid crystal You know that...

Crystals At Large In Mexico

Naica Crystal Cave

E loy and Javier Delgado walk slowly into the Naica Cave in Chihuahua, Mexico. The cave is very hot, making it difficult for them to breathe. They enter a room in the cave and before them are huge 4.5-m crystals that are clear and brilliant. How did these crystals grow this large What kinds of conditions make these crystals possible The climate inside the cave The large gypsum minerals present in Naica Cave are located 700 m below Earth's surface. Temperatures there reach 71 C 160 F . The air...

Apply Your Skill

Ordinary Well And Artesian Well Diagram

Design Using what you have learned in this lab and in the chapter, develop a plan for stopping the pollution plume. Make a map showing where your plan will be implemented. Indicate the sites where water quality will be monitored regularly. y , i -. - -Uffefi l - . X A i 11 i L - f. SEM I VOLE CO _ ---------EflDTtp CO ,L -f' gm- r . n 1 . 1 J i - . ar-t . t TTJ- _ - rr .- r' .nr 1. , .,. . rjji H ' . , -------i IV . .' ' ' - _ I 1 , HiiurRH--.J j -T _ _ . ' U Download quizzes, key terms, and...

Visualizing Springs

Groundwater Table And Faults

Perched water table Layer of impermeable clay A spring forms where a permeable layer and impermeable layer come together. A layer of impermeable rock or clay can create a perched water table. Springs can result where groundwater emerges from a perched water table. Some springs form where a fault has brought together two different types of bedrock, such as a porous rock and a non-porous rock. Karst springs form where groundwater weathers through limestone bedrock, and water in the underground...

Careers In Earth Science

Earth Science Careers

Hydrogeologist Earth scientists who map groundwater are called hydrogeologists. They use field methods, maps, and aerial photographs to determine where ground-water is located. To learn more about Earth science careers, visit glencoe.com. Overuse Groundwater supplies can be depleted. If groundwater is pumped out at a rate greater than the recharge rate, the groundwater supply will decrease and the water table will drop. This is happening to the Ogallala Aquifer. Its water, used mostly for...

Dig for Dinosaurs

What is it like to scuba dive with H crocodiles in the Okavango delta Or fly in a bush plane L over the African continent Or dig for dinosaurs in China The National Geographic Expeditions allow you to share in the excitement and adventures of explorers, scientists, and environmentalists as they venture into the unknown. Each Expedition takes you on a journey that enriches your learning about our dynamic planet. 892 Tracing the Human footprint Use with Chapter 2 898 Stoic of Rock Use with...

Spaceage Technology Shapes Modern

The Age Modern Sensing And Gis

Many years ago, farmers planted and plowed with their hands, a few tools, and sometimes large animals, such as horses. Since then, new technology has revolutionized the work of farmers. In the United States, agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry, in part because of something called precision farming. Precision farming Precision farming, which is also called site-specific farming, is a method of farming that involves giving special attention to certain areas of a field. The fields...

The World of Water

Water Related Diseases

Humans have basic physiological needs. These include the need to breathe, to eat, to regulate body temperature, to dispose of bodily wastes, to sleep, and to have access to clean water. Humans need clean water to drink, for cleaning, cooking, and waste disposal. A global problem Almost every continent has areas that lack safe drinking water. Rural areas of developing countries and overpopu-lated urban areas often have inadequate supplies of safe drinking water. Even though adequate supplies of...

What Is The Composition Of Dripstone Formations Gravel Limestone Clay Or Sand

Bar Graph Endangered Animals Recovery

Match each description below with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide. 1. outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere 2. transfer of energy from a higher to a lower temperature by collisions between particles 3. temperature at which condensation of water vapor can occur 4. occurs when the amount of water vapor in a volume of air has reached the maximum amount 5. the amount of water vapor present in air Complete the sentences below using vocabulary terms from the Study Guide. 6. _are...

Atmospheric Basics

I MA N Energy is transferred throughout Earth's atmosphere. Real-World Reading Link If you touch something made of metal, it will probably feel cool. Metals feel cool because they conduct thermal energy away from your hand. In a similar way, energy is transferred directly from the warmed air near Earth's surface to the air in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. The ancient Greeks thought that air was one of the four fundamental elements from which all other substances were made. In fact, air is...

Other Ways To P

Read the chapter title to find out what the topic will be. Skim the photos, illustrations, captions, graphs, and tables. Look for vocabulary terms that are boldfaced and highlighted. Create an outline using section titles and heads. Within each section you will find a tool to deepen your understanding and a tool to check your understanding. Describe how plate tectonics influences the formation of volcanoes. Locate maior zones of volcanism. Identify the parts of a volcano. Differentiate between...

J Study Guide

The composition, structure, and properties of Earth's atmosphere form the basis of Earth's weather and climate. conduction p. 288 convection p. 288 exosphere p. 286 mesosphere p. 284 radiation p. 287 stratosphere p. 284 thermosphere p. 284 troposphere p. 284 MAUWJdSa Energy is transferred throughout Earth's atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere is composed of several gases, primarily nitrogen and oxygen, and also contains small particles. Earth's atmosphere consists of five layers that differ in their...

StartUp Activities

Vertical Cut Occulded Front

An air mass is a large volume of air that has the characteristics of the area over which it formed. 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Place a full tray of ice cubes on a table. Place a pencil under each end of the tray to raise it off the table. 3. Slide a liquid-crystal temperature strip 4. Place two pencils across the top of the tray, and another temperature strip across them. 5. Record the temperature of each strip at 1-min intervals for about 5 min. 6. Make a graph of the...

Assessment

Concept Map Water Cycle Tributary

Choose the vocabulary term from the Study Guide that 1. influenced by vegetation, precipitation, soil composition, and slope 2. the land area whose water drains into a stream 3. sediments that are transported by streams but are too large to be held up in suspension 4. the measure of the volume of stream water that flows over a particular location within a given period of time 5. the triangular deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water such as a lake or ocean 6....

Movement and Storage of Groundwater

Zone Saturation

N dSS Groundwater reservoirs provide water to streams and wetlands wherever the water table intersects the surface of the ground. Real-World Reading Link Have you ever noticed that a stream flows even when it has not rained in a long time Rainfall contributes to the flow in a stream, but much of the water comes from beneath the ground. The water on and in Earth's crust makes up the hydrosphere, named after hydros, the Greek word for water. You learned about the hydrosphere in Chapter 1 in the...

Predict The Velocity Of A Stream

Background Water in streams flows from areas of high elevation to areas of low elevation. Stream flow is measured by recording the water's velocity. The velocity varies from one stream to another and also in different areas of the same stream. Many components of the stream affect the velocity, including sediment, slope, and rainfall. Question How does slope affect velocity Materials Read and complete the lab safety form. Work in groups of three to four. Use a three-hole punch to make 10 to 15...

Problemsolving

How can you analyze changes in elevation Gradient refers to the steepness of a slope. To measure gradient, divide the change in elevation between two points on a map by the distance between the two points. Use the map to answer the following questions, and convert your answers to SI units. 1. Determine the distance from Point A to Point B using the map scale. 2. Record the change in elevation. 3. Calculate If you were to hike the distance from Point A to Point B, what would be the gradient of...

G Study Guide

Igneous rocks were the first rocks to form as Earth cooled from a molten mass to the crystalline rocks of the early crust. Bowen's reaction series p. 114 fractional crystallization p. 115 igneous rock p. 112 lava p. 112 partial melting p. 114 MAUWJdSa Igneous rocks are the rocks that form when molten material cools and crystallizes. Magma consists of molten rock, dissolved gases, and mineral crystals. Magma is classified as basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic, based on the amount of silica it...

Contrast Of Suspension And Saltation As They Relate To Transport Of Materials By Wind

Movement Glaciers Animation

Match the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide to the following definitions. 1. rapid downslope movement of a mass of loose sediment 2. rapidly flowing, often destructive mixtures of mud and water 3. slow, steady downhill movement of loose, weathered Earth materials Replace each underlined word with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide. 4. Barchans are rock structures shaped by windblown sediments. 5. Thick, windblown, fertile deposits of silt that contain high levels of...

Data Analysis Lab

Soil Particle Sizes

How can you determine a soil's texture Soils can be classified with the use of a soil textural triangle. Soil texture is determined by the percentages of the sand, silt, and clay that make up the soil. These also vary with depth, from one soil horizon to another. Below are data from three horizons of a soil in North Carolina. Data obtained from Soil Survey Staff. 2006. National Soil Survey Characterization Data. Soil Survey Laboratory. National Soil Survey Center. November 9 USDA-NRCS-Lincoln,...

Visualizing Continental Glacial Features

Continental Glacier Features Kames

Figure 8.23 Continental glaciers carve out vast regions of landscape, leaving behind distinctive features such as kames, eskers, drumlins, and moraines. Kames are short cone-shaped mounds of Eskers are long ridges of sorted deposits. Drumlins are shaped as the glacier moves sorted deposits. They are shaped from out- They are shaped from outwash left as gla- over old moraines. They are unsorted. wash left as glaciers recede. ciers recede. CO f 1 ,n CHjfc To explore more about glacial features,...

S G

How does a cold air mass form 313 Why does lighting How can you model cloud cover 375 How much of Earth's surface is covered by water 405 Where does chalk form 437 Is California moving 467 What makes magma What can cause an earthquake 527 How does crust displace mantle 561 How are fossils How do liquids of different densities model early How is oil stored in What natural resources do you use in Can you identify sources of energy 707 What resources are used in classroom How can the...

Which Rocks Are Most Likely To Metamorphose From A Lava Flow

Bowen Reaction Series

Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from qlencoe.com. Most rocks are formed from preexisting rocks through external and internal geologic processes. bedding p. 137 cementation p. 137 cross-bedding p. 138 graded bedding p. 138 lithification p. 136 sediment p. 134 MAUWJdSa Sediments produced by weathering and erosion form sedimentary rocks through the process of lithification. The processes of weathering, erosion, deposition, and lithification form sedimentary rocks. Clastic sediments...

Earth Science Society

Conchita Mass Movement Event 2005

On the morning of January 10, 2005, the residents of La Conchita, California, awoke to find the highway out of town closed in both directions, due to landslides. Around 12 30 p.m. many residents heard an ominous roar as the bluff above the town unleashed 600,000 metric tons of dirt and mud, covering four blocks in 10 m of debris. Scientists went to the scene to discover exactly what had caused this enormous landslide and whether one could happen again. The setting La Conchita is built on a...

Make A Field Guide For Minerals

Picture Silicon Oxygen Tetrahedron

Background Have you ever used a field guide to identify a bird, flower, rock, or insect If so, you know that field guides include more than photographs. A typical field guide for minerals might include background information about minerals in general and specific information about the formation, properties, and uses of each mineral. Question Which mineral properties should be included in a field guide to help identify unknown minerals Choose materials that would be appropriate for this lab....

Model Mineral Weathering

Halite Chips

Background Many factors affect the rate of weathering of Earth materials. Two major factors that affect the rate at which a rock weathers include the length of time it is exposed to a weathering agent and the composition of the rock. Question What is the relationship between exposure time and weathering plastic jar with lid water 300 mL halite chips 100 g Read and complete the lab safety form. Soak 100 g of halite chips in water overnight. As a class, decide on a uniform method of shaking the...

Groundwater Supply

Ordinary Wells And Cone Depression

N4TTHa Water is not always available in the quantities and in the locations where it is needed and might be compromised by pollution. Real-World Reading Link If you have a bank account, can you withdraw as much money as you want Of course not. Like a bank account, groundwater can be withdrawn, but only in the amount that has been deposited there. ilfSf Wells are holes dug or drilled into the ground to reach an aquifer. There are two main types of wells ordinary wells and artesian wells. Figure...

Surface Water Movement

Runoff Grain Size

I MA N Running water is an agent of erosion, carrying sediments in streams and rivers and depositing them downstream. Real-World Reading Link Have you ever noticed that sometimes a river is muddy but other times it is clear In floods, rivers can carry greater amounts of materials, which makes them muddy. Under normal conditions, they often carry less sediment, which makes them clearer. Earth's water supply is recycled in a continuous process called the water cycle, shown in Figure 9.1. Water...

Measurement And Si Units

Background Suppose someone asked you to measure the area of your classroom in square cubits. What would you use A cubit is an ancient unit of length equal to the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Today, SI is used as a standard system of measurement. Question Why are standard units of measure important 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Obtain a set of rock samples from your teacher. 3. Measure the weight and length of two rock samples using a nonstandard unit...

Minerals

Shapes Minerals Form

Minerals are an integral part of daily life. H Biaa Minerals are naturally occurring, solid, inorganic compounds or elements. 4.2 Types of Minerals H Biaa Minerals are classified based on their chemical properties and characteristics. Stalactites and other cave formations take thousands of years to form. One estimate is that a stalactite will grow only 10 cm in 1000 years. That is equal to 0.1 mm each year The diameter of a soda straw is equal to the droplets of water that form them. The...

Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands

Chemistry Eutrophication Pictures

As the amount of water changes and the amount of sediments increases, lakes can be transformed into wetlands and eventually into dry land. Real-World Reading Link Have you ever felt the bottom of a lake with your feet It was probably soft and squishy from deposits of fine sediments. Lakes and ponds receive materials that are carried by rivers from upland areas. Over time, accumulation of these sediments changes the characteristics of the lake. Natural lakes, bodies of water surrounded by land,...

Stream Development

Meander Formation Animation

I ma NK Streams erode paths through sediment and rock, forming V-shaped stream valleys. Real-World Reading Link When was the last time you saw water flow uphill Water in all rivers travels downslope to the lowest point. This allows geologists to predict the path of the river based on the features of an area. Stream formation relies on an adequate water supply. Precipitation provides water for the beginnings of stream formation. Streams can also be fed by underground deposits of water. As a...

Scavenger Hunt

Earth Science Geology, the Environment, and the Universe is full of important information and useful resources. Use the activity below to familiarize yourself with the tools and information in this book. As you complete this scavenger hunt, either alone or with your teacher or family, you will learn quickly how this book is organized and how to get the most out of your reading and study time. Q How many units are in this book How many chapters On what page does the glossary begin What glossary...

Visualizing Soil Orders

Usda Soil Classification

Figure 7.21 The five factors of soil formation determine how the soil orders are distributed across the United States. Soil profiles of three soil orders from different parts of the country are shown. Each soil profile has soil horizons expressed differently. Figure 7.21 The five factors of soil formation determine how the soil orders are distributed across the United States. Soil profiles of three soil orders from different parts of the country are shown. Each soil profile has soil horizons...

Track Groundwater Pollution Geolab

MAPPING TRACK GROUNDWATER POLLUTION Background You can use a topographic map to estimate the direction of groundwater flow. Groundwater pollution spreads out from its source and follows the flow of groundwater. The spread and movement of the pollution resembles a plume that stems from its source. Question How can you determine the movement of a pollution plume U. S. Geological Survey topographic map of Forest City, 6. Draw a small line at each place where a contour line intersects the line from...

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Weathering Moving Water Diagram

N deS Sediments produced by weathering and erosion form sedimentary rocks through the process of lithification. Real-World Reading Link Whenever you are outside, you might see pieces of broken rock, sand, and soil on the ground. What happens to this material With one heavy rain, these pieces of broken rock, sand, and soil could be on their way to becoming part of a sedimentary rock. Wherever rock is exposed at Earth's surface, it is continuously being broken down by weathering a set of physical...

Geolab Design Your Own Monitor Daily Water Usage

Build your analytical skills using actual data from real scientific sources. 1 Make and Use Graphs How can graphs help interpret 4 Make and Use a Table What information should you include in a mineral identification 7 Interpret the Data How can you determine a soil's 8 Interpret the Data How much radioactivity is in ice 13 Interpret the Table How can you calculate a heat 14 Interpret the Data What is the temperature in Phoenix, 15 Graph Data When does the tide come 18 Interpret the Graph How do...

Inquiry Extension

Blowouts Deflation Basins

Design an Experiment This lab demonstrated the relationship between exposure time and weathering. Consider other factors that affect weathering. Design an experiment to measure the effects of those factors. Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from glencoe.com. Weathering and erosion are agents of change on Earth's surface. chemical weathering p. 166 exfoliation p. 165 frost wedging p. 164 mechanical weathering p. 164 oxidation p. 166 weathering p. 164 MAUWJdSa Weathering breaks down...

Visualizing Erosion and Deposition in a Meander

Mississippi Delta Deposition

Figure 9.15 As the water travels down a meander, the area of maximum velocity changes. As shown in cross-section A, when the meander is straight, the maximum velocity is located near the center. When the meander curves, the maximum velocity shifts to the outside of the curve, as shown in cross-section B. As the meander travels around to cross-section C, the maximum velocity shifts again to the outside of the curve. Erosion occurs around curves in the meander in areas of high velocity. The high...

What are igneous rocks

What The Temperature Melt Potassium

N4TdHa Igneous rocks are the rocks that form when molten material cools and crystallizes. Real-World Reading Link At any given point in time, igneous rocks are forming somewhere on Earth. The location and the conditions that are present determine the types of igneous rocks that form. If you live near an active volcano, you can literally watch igneous rocks form. A hot, molten mass of rock can solidify into solid rock overnight. As you read in Chapter 4, magma is molten rock below Earth's...

Groundwater Weathering and Deposition

Groundwater Deposition

Chemical weathering of limestone by water causes the characteristic topography of karst areas. Real-World Reading Link You might have seen an old gravestone, statue, or sculpture that has been weathered by acidic water. Similar processes form limestone caves underground. Acids are aqueous solutions that contain hydrogen ions. Most groundwater is slightly acidic due to carbonic acid. Carbonic acid forms when carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water and combines with water molecules. This happens...

Visualizing GPS Satellites

Gps Intersecting Sphere

Figure 2.16 GPS receivers detect signals from the 27 GPS satellites orbiting Earth. Using signals from at least three satellites, the receiver can calculate location within 10 m. First, a GPS receiver, located in New York City, receives a signal from one satellite. The distance from the satellite to the receiver is calculated. Suppose the distance is 20,000 km. This limits the possible location of the receiver to anywhere on a sphere 20,000 km from the satellite. Next, the receiver measures the...

Classification of Igneous Rocks

Obsidian Texture

MClassification of igneous rocks is based on mineral composition, crystal size, and texture. Real-World Reading Link Many statues, floors, buildings, and countertops have something in common. Many of them are made of the popular rock type granite one of the most abundant rocks in Earth's crust. Mineral Composition of Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are broadly classified as intrusive or extrusive. When magma cools and crystallizes below Earth's surface, intrusive rocks form. If the magma is...

Study Guide

Create Topo Map

Earth scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world. International Date Line p. 33 latitude p. 30 longitude p. 31 prime meridian p. 31 conic projection p. 35 contour interval p. 36 contour line p. 36 geologic map p. 38 gnomonic projection p. 35 map legend p. 39 map scale p. 39 Mercator projection p. 34 topographic map p. 36 Geographic Information System p. 44 Global Positioning System p. 44 Landsat satellite p. 41 remote sensing p. 41 sonar p. 43 MAUWJdSa Lines of...

Mapping Our World

Glencoe Earth Science Latitude Longitude

Earth scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world. 2.1 Latitude and Longitude I iiBRii Lines of latitude and longitude are used to locate places on Earth. fT fldia Maps are flat projections that come in many different forms. H Biaa New technologies have changed the appearance and use of maps. Maps predate written history. The earliest known map was created as a cave painting in ancient Turkey. China spans five international time zones however, the entire country...

Precipitate Salts

Background Many rocks on Earth form from salts precipitated from seawater. Salts precipitate when a salt solution becomes saturated. Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solution. When a solution is saturated, no more of that substance can be dissolved. Question Under what conditions do salt solutions become saturated, and under what conditions does salt precipitate out of solution halite sodium chloride 250-mL glass beakers 2 distilled water plastic wrap laboratory scale...

The Nature of Science

Biosphere Foldables

tl Eureka Slide SuperStock, tr Gavriel Jecan CORBIS, bl Stockbyte SuperStock, br Bob O'Connor Getty Images, bkgd Science VU GSFC Visuals Unlimited Earth scientists use specific methods to investigate Earth and beyond. Earth science encompasses five areas of study astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science. Jjjdjea Scientists use scientific methods to structure their experiments and investigations. Precise communication is crucial for scientists to share their...

Periodic Table Of The Elements

Element Krypton Subatomic Particles

Atomic number -Symbol -Atomic mass - The number in parentheses is the mass number of the longest lived isotope for that element. The names and symbols for elements 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, and 118 are temporary. Final names will be selected when the elements' discoveries are verified. Surrounding the nucleus of an atom are smaller particles called electrons. An electron e has little mass, but it has a negative electric charge that is exactly the same magnitude as the positive charge of a...

What is a mineral

Flaky Mineral Contains Silicon Oxygen

I MA N Minerals are naturally occurring, solid, inorganic compounds or elements. Real-World Reading Link Look around your classroom. The metal in your desk, the graphite in your pencil, and the glass in the windows are just three examples of how modern humans use products made from minerals. Earth's crust is composed of about 3000 minerals. Minerals play important roles in forming rocks and in shaping Earth's surface. A select few have helped shape civilization. For example, great progress in...

Data Analysis

Naturally Forming Minerals Gems

What information should you include in a mineral identification chart 1. Copy the data table and use the Reference Handbook to complete the table. 2. Expand the table to include the names of the minerals, other properties, and uses. 3. Determine which of these minerals will scratch glass Explain. 4. Identify which of these minerals might be present in both a painting and your desk. 5. Identify any other information you could include in the table. Data obtained from Klein, C. 2002. The Manual of...

Visualizing Fractional Crystallization and Crystal Settling

Fractional Crystallization Geology

Figure 5.6 The Palisade Sill in the Hudson River valley of New York is a classic example of fractional crystallization and crystal settling. In the basaltic intrusion, small crystals formed in the chill zone as the outer areas of the intrusion cooled more quickly than the interior. Figure 5.6 The Palisade Sill in the Hudson River valley of New York is a classic example of fractional crystallization and crystal settling. In the basaltic intrusion, small crystals formed in the chill zone as the...

Combining Matter

Covalent Bond Examples

INKAtoms combine through electric forces, forming molecules and compounds. Real-World Reading Link Is there a rusty mailbox or bicycle on your street Nearly everywhere you look, you can see iron objects that have become rusty. Rust forms when iron is exposed to water and oxygen in the air. Can you identify the materials in Figure 3.7 The greenish gas in the flask is the element chlorine, which is poisonous. The solid, silvery metal is the element sodium, which is highly reactive. These two...

Visualizing Cross Bedding and Ripple Marks

Images Ripple Marks And Cross Bedding

Figure 6.8 Moving water and loose sediment result in the formation of sedimentary structures such as cross-bedding and ripple marks. Sand carried by wind gets deposited on the downwind side of a dune. As the wind changes direction, cross-bedding is formed that records this change in direction. Sediment on the river bottom gets pushed into small hills and ripples by the current. Additional sediment gets deposited at an angle on the downcurrent side of these hills forming cross-beds. Eventually,...

Remote Sensing

New Orleans Geological Survey Westbank

N4TTHa New technologies have changed the appearance and use of maps. Real-World Reading Link Many years ago, if you wanted a family portrait, it would be painted by an artist over many hours. Today, cameras can create a photo in seconds. Cartography has also changed. Cartographers use digital images to create maps with many more details that can be updated instantly. Advanced technology has changed the way maps are made. The process of gathering data about Earth using instruments mounted on...

Science

Geolo - , he Environment, and the Universe Francisco Borrero Frances Scelsi Hess Juno Hsu Gerhard Kunze Stephen A. Leslie Stephen Letro Michael Manga Len Sharp Theodore Snow Dinah Zike National Geographic Francisco Borrero Frances Scelsi Hess Juno Hsu Gerhard Kunze Stephen A. Leslie Stephen Letro Michael Manga Len Sharp Theodore Snow Dinah Zike National Geographic New York, New York Columbus, Ohio Chicago, Illinois Woodland Hills, California t, c Getty Images, b Paul Chesley Getty Images About...

Geolab

Background Topographic maps show two-dimensional representations of Earth's surface. With these maps, you can determine the slope of a hill, what direction streams flow, and where mines and other features are located. In this lab, you will use the topographic map on the following page to determine elevation for several routes and to create a profile showing elevation. Question How can you use a topographic map to interpret information about an area 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2....