Gasoline Engine Ebook

Bourke Engine Documentary

This ebook comes to you from David S. Wolfe, engineer and owner of the Bourke-Engine.com, and this book shows you all about the best gasoline engine that was ever build, the specs on it, and how to build one of your own. You will also get the blueprints to this unique kind of engine, so that you can build a perfect version of it yourself. This engine has a 50:1 air-to-fuel ratio, and runs with more horsepower and torque than any other engine in history. The oil never has to be changed, and the engine runs extremely quietly. This engine also uses what is known as the Bourke Cycle, which allows the engine to use air and fuel at a far more efficient rate than any other engine in history. You will learn to build this engine yourself, with a complete guide and blueprints.

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Author: David Wolfe
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Initiatives to Improve Urban Air Quality in Developing Countries

Air quality in the Kathmandu Valley, the largest urban conurbation in Nepal, is acknowledged to have deteriorated.85 Fuelwood, agricultural residues and animal waste make up the bulk of fuel consumption. The number of vehicles in the Valley is rising rapidly. A large number of industries are classified as 'polluting'. It is not surprising therefore that good visibility is down, on average, to five days in a month in Kathmandu, respiratory diseases have increased in recent years and low crop yields are recorded as being related to high levels of dust deposition. The Nepalese Government has introduced measures to deal with industry- and transport-generated pollution including the restriction of the registration of two-stroke engine vehicles in important tourist centres (as these account for over 50 of vehicles). There is a recent ban on three-wheeler tempos in the Kathmandu Valley. Now there are up to 450 electric-powered Safa tempos in use.

Design of Solar Charging Station in the Buildings and Grounds Department Medford Campus

The Buildings and Grounds Department of Tufts University purchased an electric mower to replace an aging four-cycle gasoline engine mower. In addition to significant reductions in noise pollution, this mower will greatly reduce air emissions, including CO2, a major contributor to global climate change. However, air emissions are not eliminated completely. Air emissions are associated with the electricity used to recharge the batteries. A solar power charging station is proposed to further reduce emissions associated with the electric power necessary to charge the mower batteries. This project will

New Internal Combustion Vehicles More Efficient

Just as fuels are evolving, so are internal combustion engines. In the gasoline engine's more than 100 years of history it has continually evolved to the point where the best of today's engines are able to emit just miniscule amounts of pollution. New technology is also allowing large gasoline engines to achieve fuel economy more synonymous with smaller engines by shutting down individual cylinders when they are not needed. On the diesel side, the new clean diesel technology along with low-sulfur fuels has resulted in diesel engines that are just as clean as their gasoline counterparts but significantly more fuel-efficient.

How Do Natural Gas Vehicles Work

NGVs operate similar to your standard-issue gasoline-powered car. They can utilize almost identical engine and transmission technology, which is very good news for auto manufacturers. The major difference is in the fuel storage and fuel delivery systems. Instead of a gas tank, natural gas is stored in a cylinder not unlike what you'd see hooked to a backyard grill. The natural gas is delivered to the engine's combustion chambers in measured amounts rather than in atomized squirts as in the fuel-injected gasoline engines of today. The key difference is that natural gas is already in a gaseous state, which aids in its burning cleaner, while gasoline has to be mixed with air prior to its combustion, producing somewhat more residual waste products. In a gasoline engine atomized gasoline is set on fire by the sparkplug, producing a small explosion. It is the expansion of the gasoline-air mixture in the combustion process that moves the piston to create motive force. In an NGV, the natural...

Powering engines for transportation

Gasoline engines In a gasoline engine, gasoline is mixed with air in a carburetor which forms a fine mist (very explosive). The mist is injected into an enclosed cylinder that contains a moving piston confined very tightly into the cylinder. A spark plug ignites the mixture at exactly the right moment, and the piston undergoes great pressure. The spark and the ensuing explosion are referred to as ignition (it's actually a small explosion, to be precise). The piston is connected to a rotating shaft (the crankshaft) by rods and bearings and due to the construction of the rod and crankshaft, torque rotates the crankshaft and provides motive power. The burned gas is exhausted through appropriate ports that open and close at the right phases in the cycle. The existing infrastructure for gasoline engines is tremendous. You can buy one anywhere, and get one fixed anywhere. Millions of mechanics are well versed in their operation. Many young men know more about internal combustion than they...

Fuel and Engine Technologies Visonary Alternatives

Reportedly, the lightweight chassis makes it possible to drive 125 miles on a single tank of air, and it only takes a few minutes to refill. In one version, the car is also fitted with a gasoline engine, which powers an onboard air compressor. This increases the range of the car, so that the full distance from Los Angeles to New York City can be covered on one tank of gasoline.7 If this technology proves to be as good as it sounds, it may become a serious competitor of the combustion engine.

Converting to Natural

Several companies have entered the retrofit vehicle conversion arena. One of them, AFV Solutions, Inc., received a certificate of conformity from the EPA for its propane conversion system for the 2006 model year Ford Motor Company 4.6 liter V8 gasoline engine. The conversion system is intended to be installed on the Ford Crown Victoria, Lincoln Town Car, and Mercury Grand Marquis models, cars often used in law enforcement, taxicabs, and limousine fleets. The good news on this conversion is that the AFV Solutions' dedicated propane system has passed all federal emission and operating standards required by the EPA, registering significantly below established emission limits. A company with the slightly misleading name of Hybrid Fuel Systems, Inc. (HFS) also has recognized the potential of natural gas and propane. It has formed a multistate network of installers trained to handle systems that convert diesel and gasoline engines to operate on natural gas and propane. To become an...

Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Changes in automotive light-duty vehicle power trains are being driven by the need to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Conventional gasoline today is highly efficient and has very good emissions performance. To increase energy efficiency, additional technologies are being investigated very aggressively by the auto industry. Technologies also need to be developed to meet increasingly tough emissions standards that require reductions in nitrogen oxide from gas-powered engines. Nitrogen oxide reductions have been made continually over the past 30 years. The newest regulations, federal Tier 2 standards that go into effect in 2004, effectively target other cold start pollutants such as nonmethane organic gas emissions without affecting nitrogen oxide control. Extremely high levels of simultaneous reduction of NOx, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been possible because of the stoiciometric nature of engine-out exhaust of the internal combustion gasoline...

Other Barriers And Breakthroughs

Another barrier emerged in the second decade of the 20th century. Gasoline engines could be 'miniaturized' by increasing the compression ratio to about 4 1, but after that the engine suffered from pre-ignition, known as 'knocking' during the compression stroke. Knocking was not only annoying it cut the power and the efficiency. There was an industrywide search for an effective additive that could eliminate knocking. The successful anti-knock product, tetraethyl lead, was discovered by a chemist at a small laboratory called Dayton Engineering Laboratories Inc. (Jewkes et al. 1958). That laboratory, along with its leader, Charles Kettering, was later acquired by General Motors, where it became the Delco division. The diesel engine was conceived on the basis of theory, and subsequently developed by Rudolph Diesel in the 1890s. The original motivation was to find a way of avoiding the 'knocking' problem in gasoline engines, mentioned above, by using heavier fuel oil that would not...

Multi Displacement Active Fuel Technology

In addition to PZEVs, another gasoline engine technology has recently gone into production that is designed to reduce fuel consumption, and it is being used on some of the largest, most fuel-thirsty vehicles on sale in the United States. Called variously Multi-Displacement System DaimlerChrysler has labeled its two-mode gasoline engine technology Multi-Displacement System (MDS), while General Motors calls its very similar system Active Fuel Management (AFM). The industry shorthand for the systems is displacement on demand because the engines can perform similar to large- or small-displacement engines depending on load.

How Do Displacement on Demand Vehicles Work

Another important note on this technology the improved fuel economy is realized without any change in driver experience or functionality. Displacement on demand vehicles offer power, response, cargo, and towing capabilities that are equal or better than vehicles equipped with conventional gasoline engines of the same displacement. Drivers will receive the benefits without changing their driving habits and without compromising style, comfort, or convenience. No vehicle these days combines a PZEV rating with the use of displacement on demand technology. That is due largely to the fact that it is easier for a small car equipped with a relatively small engine to achieve PZEV status, and displacement on demand technology is being applied to vehicles that can most benefit from its abilities namely, large pickups, sedans, and SUVs. But we can lump these two advanced vehicle types under the heading New Tech Gasoline Engine Vehicles because they exhibit similar characteristics in the hands of...

Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Diesel Fuels Substitute in Compression Ignition Engines

Japanese Volvo Bus Images

Diesel engines are quite different from gasoline engines. Instead of using sparkplugs to ignite the fuel air mixture in the engine's cylinders, diesel motors rely on the self-ignition properties of the fuel to ignite under specific high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. While a typical gasoline engine has a compression ratio of about 8-9 to 1, a diesel engine has generally a compression ratio in excess of 17 to 1. In the past, such engines were used mainly in heavy-duty vehicles such as buses, tractors, trucks, locomotives and ships. However, in the early 1970s - due to their better fuel economy compared to gasoline engines -diesel engines were increasingly used to power personal automobiles. Today, in western Europe for example, diesel-fueled cars represent about 50 of all cars in operation.

The Pluses and Minuses of New Diesel Vehicles

The key advantages new diesels offer are improved greenhouse gas emissions and potentially lower overall fuel costs based on the fact that diesel engines are inherently more efficient than gasoline engines. It should be noted that in terms of what are best termed more traditional pollution-causing emissions, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, and particulates, clean diesel technology combined with the use of conventional diesel fuel simply equals the best conventional gasoline engine performance in the area. But when used in combination with biodiesel, the EPA says that 100 percent biodiesel will reduce carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions by 75 percent. Using a blend of 20 percent biodiesel mixed with 80 percent petrodiesel (so-called B20) will reduce CO2 emissions by 15 percent. Biodiesel in concert with clean diesel technology also reduces particulates, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Because biodiesel is made from renewable resources and even waste products, it has...

Piston engine technology

In a two-stroke engine, intake and exhaust strokes are not separate. Instead fuel is forced into the piston chamber (intake) towards the end of the power stroke, pushing out the exhaust gases through a valve at the top of the chamber. A compression stroke is then followed by ignition of the fuel and a repeat of the cycle.

The Pluses and Minuses of Hybrid Vehicles

Of increasingly scarce and expensive petroleum. Fuel economy is often at least 25 percent better than for similar gasoline-powered vehicles. HEVs also pollute much less than conventional vehicles. Estimates indicate that hybrids can deliver emission reductions of as much as 50 percent for carbon dioxide and 90 percent for carbon monoxide. The rule of thumb is that the less time the gasoline engine runs the more potential benefits, especially when it comes to the production of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Most of the environmental gains come when hybrids are operating in electric-only mode, and the electric assist also boosts fuel economy performance.

Storage Of Electrical Energy

For users with special needs it is possible to place storage containers for chemical fuels at the point of use and store an emergency supply of chemical fuel on site. This type of system increases the capital cost of the user's system, but it adds an increment of reliability. Such a high level of reliability is useful for public facilities such as hospitals, police stations, fire stations and air traffic control centers. The common technique is a system with a diesel or gasoline engine wired to start if the main power is interrupted. The engine operates a generator supplying emergency power to the critical equipment in the facility until the main power is repaired. In these facilities, the added cost for on site storage and emergency power generation is acceptable because of the need for extreme reliability in operating the facilities. It has been shown that handling of energy stored as a chemical fuel offers the greatest possible flexibility, utility and efficiency. A recapitulation...

GM More Greenwashed than Green

In 2007, with its fuel cell and hydrogen promises lingering, GM latched on to a new green product, its plug-in hybrid Volt. Again it launched a torrent of press events and splashy media ads. It showcased the prototype car around the country. The car certainly was an attractive concept. Offering a 40-mile range on pure electricity and a much longer range on its gasoline engine for those times when a driver wants to go farther, it had all the attractions of a pure battery electric car without the range disadvantage. General Motors promised it would begin production as soon as an adequate battery emerged scheduled for 2010. It undoubtedly will produce the vehicle, but most likely in small volumes since the car is inherently very expensive combining a full electric drive system with a large expensive battery and full-sized combustion engine system. All other companies are aiming for less expensive designs with smaller batteries, thus positioning themselves for the mass market. Will GM...

Plugin Hybrids Producing Much Less Carbon Dioxide

How about taking a hybrid car and putting in an even higher-performance battery that can be charged when the vehicle is not in operation A supersized battery would reduce the need for the gasoline engine substantially. Basically, this would be an electric car with a small gasoline motor to supplement the power of the electric motor the small percentage of the time that greater acceleration is needed. The gasoline motor also would extend the range of the vehicle so that it could continue back home or to the nearest place to recharge the battery if the battery runs out. Mileage approaching 100 mpg is reasonable to expect from this approach and since most car owners drive less than 35 miles (16 km) per day recharging overnight may be very feasible. Mileage in the range of 100 mpg can be accomplished on some current commercially obtained hybrid cars by using a pre-charged lithium ion battery rather than the standard nickel-metal hydride battery

Hybrids Before the Japanese

As early as 1900, two hybrid cars were displayed at the Paris Auto Salon, the precursor of the Paris Auto Show. Several companies that built taxicabs decided they could add range to their electric propulsion systems if they added a small gasoline engine to keep the batteries charged. Krieger, Pieper, and Auto-Mixte were three of the companies that built hybrids between 1900 and 1910. The Pieper car was especially interesting, because it used the gasoline engine to charge the batteries and to power the driving wheels, but when an added boost was needed, it used the electric motor to provide supplemental power. The motor also was used to generate electricity for the batteries when the car was in cruising mode. After the advent of the self-starter, most auto engineers turned away from hybrid concepts, although you could make the case that a gasoline-engine car with an electric-powered self-starter is a hybrid. In fact, one of the newest hybrids on the market uses the starter motor as a...

Turbine Cars

When I was a young pup immersing myself in the technologies that would certainly propel our cars of the future, electrics, hybrids, natural gas cars, or alternative fuel vehicles didn't even reach my consciousness. In the mid-1960s, it was obvious to anyone who was following the pulse of technological change that by 1980, all our cars would be powered by gas turbines. Turbines were it. High-tech, powerful, and compact, turbines were simply the obvious choice for replacing the conventional gasoline engine. And one thing is obvious in all this throughout the decades somebody somewhere has always wanted to replace the gasoline engine. On this side of the Atlantic, Chrysler took up the turbine mantle. The company experimented with turbines throughout the 1950s and by 1963 it was prepared to put 50 of them into consumers' hands for a long-term test. Though the bodies were built by Ghia in Italy, the cars had styling similar to conventional Chrysler products of the day. Under the hood,...

Clean Diesel

I wasn - t expecting to include diesel in a discussion of future green engine technologies, since my only experience with it is a neighbor's pickup truck that's so noisy it spooks my dogs. So it was a surprise to find out that a new generation of clean diesel engines might be a possible competitor for plug-in hybrids and that carmakers are racing to bring out new models. So here goes Both diesel and gasoline engines convert the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy. But they do so in slightly different ways. A gasoline engine takes in a mixture of gasoline and air, compresses it, and ignites the mixture with a spark plug. The energy released pushes a piston, which eventually turns the wheels. A diesel engine takes in air, compresses it which raises its temperature and then injects fuel into the cylinder. When the fuel contacts the hot air, it ignites. Diesel fuel is a bit heavier and contains more energy than the same amount of gasoline. And diesel engines' higher compression...

Plugin Vehicles

Miles (97 km) mostly on battery, with the remainder achieved under engine power. According to the NREL, the sedan's performance more than doubles the fuel economy of a standard Prius, which is rated 48 45 MPG. In addition, it is a fivefold improvement over the 20 MPG averages that passenger cars and light trucks in the United States achieved in 2007. The plug-in hybrid runs on electricity at low speeds then the batteries and the gasoline engine share the work. The batteries recharge automatically as the car is running.

What Is Diesel

The key benefit of the diesel process is its high efficiency. By using a much higher compression ratio than a conventional gasoline engine (which uses the Otto cycle), the diesel engine is able to extract more power from the same amount of fuel. In addition, diesel fuel is typically more power-laden (by 15 percent or so) than gasoline. The combination results in more bang for your buck. There is some disagreement as to just how much more efficient diesels are than gasoline engines, but the general consensus is that they are, at the very least, 20 percent more efficient and perhaps as much as 50 percent more efficient in typical applications.

Peek at the Future

In Chapter 2, I floated the idea that today's conventional gasoline-powered cars are, in reality, a mild type of hybrid vehicle. They use their gasoline engines to move themselves, but other functions, such as powering audio and navigation systems, heating and ventilating fans and the crucial electronic engine control and ignition systems are powered by a storage battery that is kept in a proper state of charge by the gasoline engine. Even starting the gasoline engine is accomplished by the use of an electric motor, again powered by the battery. Given that this is now considered conventional, it is not too difficult to imagine a day when a variety of separate systems now considered exotic or alternative could merge within a vehicle and become the new convention. power units, such as power steering and power brakes, by electricity rather than using a power take-off from the gasoline engine crankshaft is a growing trend in conventional cars.

New Initiatives

These developments are attracting diesel car use which, as noted, is common in Europe, to the U.S., Japan, and elsewhere. Clean diesel cars convert some NOx into ammonia that recombines with remaining NOx to make nitrogen. Diesel cars get better gas mileage than hybrids with emissions on par with gasoline engines (diesel Honda Civic 55.4 mpg). Diesel cars have smaller added costs than hybrids, have a much longer life, and lower scrapping costs and impacts. We have not started to use bio-diesel fuel derived from various plants such as palm oil, corn, etc., which further improves emission standards of diesel. Overall, as noted, there has been a great improvement in mileage of passenger cars. Even traditional gasoline engine powered car mileage is now appreciably better than just a few years ago. In parallel with bio-diesel fuel, ethanol and other plant derived or bio-fuels are extensively used. Ethanol, a gasoline substitute, has nearly replaced petroleum-based gasoline in Brazil....

Steam Cars

By the time twin brothers Francis Edgar and Freelan O. Stanley sold their photographic equipment business in 1897 to go into the business of building motorcars, steam was so well-established that it seemed a no-brainer compared to the continued difficulties tinkerers were having with infant gasoline engines. The brothers sold the rights to their first steam car to the Locomobile Company, which then began to produce them in reasonably large numbers. By 1900, steam was the predominant powerplant under American car hoods. That year United States car manufacturers built 1,681 steam cars, 1,575 electric cars, and just 936 gasoline cars. In a poll conducted at the first National Automobile Show in New York City that year, patrons favored electric- The Stanley Brothers extolled the virtues of the direct-drive system and touted steam versus what they referred to as the internal explosion engine, their term for the internal combustion gasoline engine. At first, their cars also used gasoline as...

Eating Fossil Fuels

The vast majority of endosomatic energy is no longer expended to deliver power for direct economic processes. Now the majority of endosomatic energy is utilized to generate the flow of information directing the flow of exosomatic energy driving machines. Considering the 90 1 exo endo ratio in the United States, each endosomatic kcal of energy expended in the US induces the circulation of 90 kilocalories of exosomatic energy. As an example, a small gasoline engine can convert the 38,000 kilocalories in one gallon of gasoline into 8.8 Kilowatt hours, which equates to about 3 weeks of work for one human being.8

Burning Less Fuel

This trend can be reversed through the use of existing technologies that help cars and trucks go farther on a gallon of gasoline. These include more efficient engines and transmissions, improved aerodynamics, better tires, and high strength steel and aluminum. More advanced technologies, such as hybrid-electric vehicles that use a gasoline engine and an electric motor plus a battery, can cut fuel use even further. These technologies carry with them additional costs, but pay for themselves through savings at the gasoline pump.

Hydrogen as a Fuel

The end-use energy efficiency of the hydrogen fuel cell is more than twice that of a gasoline-driven car. The APS study indicated that a hypothesized hydrogen fuel cell vehicle would use energy at a rate equivalent to 82 miles per gallon (mpg) of gasoline, whereas the rate with a gasoline engine (in the probable case) would be 38 mpg presumably with other changes in the car's design to improve its mileage. This is an increase in end-use efficiency. If the energy efficiency of hydrogen production is 30 , as it might be with electrolysis, the hydrogen advantage disappears when gauged in terms of primary energy input. However, the use of hydrogen is not motivated by the prospect of efficiency gains. It is motivated by the desire to replace oil as a primary energy input. If the hydrogen is made from natural gas rather than nuclear power as is likely to continue to be the case for at least the near future there would be a reduction in primary energy use, at the expense of some CO2...

Hybrid Cars

Utility that operates the grid would stipulate that at night, when electricity is inexpensive, the owner would charge the batteries, and during the peak periods of the day, if the car is not in use, it would be left plugged in and the charge in the batteries would be available to the utility. Naturally, controls would be provided to always leave enough power to start the gasoline engine until recharged. In the cars with high-efficiency hydrogen fuel cells, the motor is electric. Fuel cell efficiency is about 60 , whereas the efficiency of gasoline IC engines is only 25 . It is this high efficiency of the fuel cells that makes them prime candidates to provide electricity for the electric cars of the future (Figure 1.17). As of today, the fuel cell-based electric vehicles (FCEVs) are the best long-term options for the zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) of the future. Assuming that the fuel cell efficiency is 2.5 times that of a gasoline engine, and assuming that gasoline costs 3.50 gallon...