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".. .the energy cost of ammonia synthesis even in large modern plants averages over *0 GJ/tN, of which 60 percent is feedstock and *0 percent is process energy. It is unlikely that the DPRK fertilizer factories can produce ammonia for less than 5oGJ/tN. Further, because ammonia requires special storage and application, most of it is converted to liquid or solid fertilizer (e.g. urea) for easy shipping and application. The conversion of ammonia to urea requires an additional 25 GJ/tN. Since one barrel of oil represents approximately 6GJ of energy, and one ton of nitrogen in urea requires 75 GJ (or more) to produce, to run the DPRK's (three) fertilizer factories at capacity for a year would require:
(75 -T- 6 = 12.5) X 400,000 = 5,000,000 .. .or at least 5 million barrels of oil, roughly a quarter of the amount of oil imported annually into the DPRK in recent years."
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