Chapter The Collapse Of Agriculture

1. Pimental and Giampietro, Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy.

2. Kindell and Pimental, Constraints on Expansion.

3. Pimental and Giampietro, Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy.

4. U.S. Census Bureau, Poverty 2002, www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/povertyo2/pov02hi.html

5. Pimental and Pimental, Land, Energy and Water.

7. Frances Moore Lappe, Diet for a Small Planet, Ballantine Books, 1991.

www.dietforasmallplanet.com/

8. Giampietro and Pimental, Tightening Conflict.

10. Paul J. Werbos, Energy and Population, NPG Forum, 1993. www.npg.org/forum series/werbos.html;

David Pimentel et al., "Impact of Population Growth on Food Supplies and Environment," Population and Environment, 19 (1): 1997. pp. 9-14.

11. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clocks. www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html

12. Barbara Tuchman, A Distant Mirror, Ballantine Books, 1978.

13. Giampietro and Pimentel, Tightening Conflict.

14. Walter Youngquist, "The Post-Petroleum Paradigm — and Population," Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 20, Number 4,1999. www.mnforsustain.org/youngquist w post petroleum _and_population.htm

15. James H. William, David Von Hippel and Peter Hayes, Fuel and Famine: Rural Energy Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, Policy Paper 46, 2000.

www.repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi/article = io28&context = igcc

16. D.F. Von Hippel and Peter Hayes, Demand and Supply of Electricity and Other Fuels in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nautilus Institute, 1997.

17. Giampietro and Pimentel, Tightening Conflict.

19. Tony Boys, Causes and Lessons of the "North Korean Food Crisis", Ibaraka Christian University Junior College, 2000. www9.ocn.ne.jp/%7Easlan/dprke.pdf

20. Giampietro and Pimentel, Tightening Conflict.

23. Jean Laherrere, Modeling future oil production, population and the economy, ASPO Second international workshop on oil and gas, Paris, May, 2003. www.oilcrisis.com/laherrere/aspoParis.pdf

24. United Nations Development Programme and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, DPR Korea: Agricultural Re covery and Environmental Protection (AREP) Program, Identification of Investment Opportunities, Vol. 2: Working Papers 1-3.1998.

26. Youngquist, Post-Petroleum Paradigm.

27. Giampietro and Pimentel, Tightening Conflict.

".. .the energy cost of ammonia synthesis even in large modern plants averages over *0 GJ/tN, of which 60 percent is feedstock and *0 percent is process energy. It is unlikely that the DPRK fertilizer factories can produce ammonia for less than 5oGJ/tN. Further, because ammonia requires special storage and application, most of it is converted to liquid or solid fertilizer (e.g. urea) for easy shipping and application. The conversion of ammonia to urea requires an additional 25 GJ/tN. Since one barrel of oil represents approximately 6GJ of energy, and one ton of nitrogen in urea requires 75 GJ (or more) to produce, to run the DPRK's (three) fertilizer factories at capacity for a year would require:

(75 -T- 6 = 12.5) X 400,000 = 5,000,000 .. .or at least 5 million barrels of oil, roughly a quarter of the amount of oil imported annually into the DPRK in recent years."

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