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Italic page numbers indicate illustrations or maps. Page numbers followed by c denote chronology entries; page numbers followed by t denote tables, charts, or graphs.

acid rain 49, 51, 68, 72-77, 75, 81c, 214 active systems 94

AEI (automotive environmental index) 121, 122 aerosols 13 Africa 15-16, 193

AFVs (alternative fueled vehicles) 118122

Agricultural Research Service, USDA

(ARS) 187 agriculture 27-28, 149-157, 153, 154, 156 Agriculture, U.S. Department of 180 AgSTAR program 150 air-conditioning 61 air inversions 55-56, 57, 58, 70 air pollution acid rain 72-77, 75 agriculture 149-151 cars/trucks 108-109, 115-118 China 45, 160 coal plants 77-79 Donora smog 68, 69 future issues 212-213 and global dimming 15-19 and health xv, 213-214 London smog 68-72, 71 oil 12

power plants 137 satellite modeling 218-219 since industrial revolution 62-86 soot and particles 16, 138-140, 143 Air Pollution Control Act (1955) 73 air-powered vehicles 207-208 air quality management 215-217 Allen, Russell 90-91 alternative fueled vehicles (AFVs) 118122

alternative transportation fuels 174-186 biodiesel 155, 176-177, 176t, 191

electricity 177 ethanol. See ethanol hydrogen 120, 182-183 methanol 130, 180-181, 181, 190 natural gas 183-185 propane 185-186 American Petroleum Institute 143, 146 anaerobic decomposition/digestion 27,

125, 127, 149, 157, 188 anaerobic digester 150 Andersen, Jennifer 45-47 anthracite coal 3

anthropogenic greenhouse effect 6, 34,

35, 571 Arctic 139-140, 195 Arrhenius, Svante 79, 81c, 232c ARS (USDA Agricultural Research

Service) 187 Asia 16, 59, 60, 140, 212, 213 asthma 54-55

atmospheric brown cloud xvi, 14, 45, 59,

60, 140, 161 Aurilio, Anna 169 automobile manufacturers 162, 163 automobiles. See cars automotive environmental index (AEI) 121, 122

bacteria 11, 28 bagasse 154

Bala, Govindasamy 20, 21 Balbus, John 54-55 Balmes, John 54 Barnett, Tim 137 batteries 220

battery-electric vehicle (BEV) 177, 201202, 202 bicycles 115, 115, 132 biobutanol 186-187 biodiesel 155, 176-177, 176t, 191 biodiversity 75

biofuels 152, 172. See also specific fuels, e.g.: ethanol biogas 150, 157, 188-189 biomass for biobutanol 186 and black carbon 13 as energy source 152-153, 155 for ethanol 152-154, 177, 178 green charcoal 193-196, 194 green technology 223 Biomass Research and Development

Initiative 180 biomass to liquids (BTL) 189 biorefineries 155 bituminous coal 3 black carbon. See soot Boeing Company 89-90 Bow Mariner 179-180 Boxer, Barbara 162 brakes 110-111 Brazil 178

Bremby, Roderick 140 British Thermal Unit (Btu) 4, 5t Brown, Gordon 85 brown cloud. See atmospheric brown cloud

BTL (biomass to liquids) 189 buildings biodiesel for heat 155 energy efficiency in 91-97, 94, 167 ENERGY STAR® program 97-107 EPA energy efficiency recommendations 130-131 global energy use in 22-23 global warming and pollution from

87-107 green buildings 88-89, 100 Burns, William C. G. 25 buses 115-117

Bush, George W. and administration 161,

164, 236c Bushnell, Dennis 144 Butyl Fuel, LLC 187

Caldeira, Ken 21

California 121, 171-174

Canada 73

Canadell, Pep 34

cancer 116

carbon balance 33-34

carbon capture and storage (CCS) 43, 46,

85, 148, 164-165 carbon cycle 20-21, 33-34

carbon dioxide (CO2)

Arrhenius's research 79, 81c auto emissions 198

in biogas 157, 188

clean coal technology 147, 148

climate modeling 21

coal combustion 5, 8

ethanol and 179

from fossil fuels 2, 14

fuel efficiency and 174

as greenhouse gas xiv, 27, 34

home energy audits to reduce 97

importance of reducing emissions 83

increasing atmospheric concentration

159-161, 232c, 233c, 236c industrial revolution's effect on 67-68 London smog 70 from manufacturing 125 from natural gas 47, 48 nitrous oxide v. 125, 127 from oil 12-13, 51 from power plants 137 reduction by mass transit use 113-114 from transportation sector 115, 118 U.S. emissions by fossil fuel type 36t world emissions 37t, 38, 39t, 40t Carboniferous 2, 3 carbon monoxide 50, 116 carbon sequestration 14, 127 carbon sinks 34. See also specific carbon sinks, e.g.: forests Carmichael, Gregory 13 carpooling 113, 132 cars and acid rain 76 air pollution from 115-117 automotive research 219-221, 221 California regulations 162 CO2 from 198

energy efficiency of 109-111 environmentally friendly 121-123, 122t flex-fuel vehicles 192, 202-203 fuel cells. See fuel cells fuel economy. See fuel economy fuel efficiency. See fuel efficiency future designs 208-209 greenhouse gas reduction 212 green technology 197-209. See also specific cars, e.g.: hybrid electric vehicles soot from older models 139

Carson, Rachel 67 Cash for Clunkers program 163 catalytic converters 76 cattle 27-28, 151

CCS. See carbon capture and storage cellulose 155

cellulosic ethanol 178

cetane number 191

CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) 28-29

Chaisson, Eric J. 144-146

charcoal, green 193-196, 194

children 53-55, 77

chimneys 72-73

China black carbon xv, 13 cars 108 coal use 43-45 emissions xiv, 2, 159-161 energy consumption 22 need for CCS in 85 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 28-29 cities 66, 109-110, 119, 124-135, 211 Clean Air Act (Canada) 73 Clean Air Act (England) 72-73 Clean Air Act (u.S., 1970) 108-109, 137, 162, 216

Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program (1990) 78

Clean Air Act amendments (U.S., 1990)

73, 78-79, 119, 127 Clean Cities Program 119 clean coal technology 146-148, 164 Clean Commute Program (New York) 52 Cliff, Steven S. 45 climate models 17-18, 35, 138 CNG (compressed natural gas) 130, 184 coal 2-8, 6

and acid rain 76 clean technology 146-148, 164 emissions from 42-47, 47i health effects 80c, 213 and industrial revolution 63-66 and killer smog incidents 69 coal gasification 46, 80c, 147 coal power plants 136, 139 and acid rain 49, 73, 76 and CCS 46, 85, 148, 164-165 in China 43-45, 160 clean coal technology 146-148 combustion in 4

construction cancellations 140, 143 economic attractiveness of 43

EPA regulation of CO2 162 and global warming 137 pollution from 67, 77-79, 136, 136, 139 and premature deaths 214 soot from 139 coal to liquids (CTL) 189-190 coal washing 147

cogeneration 8, 9, 50, 130, 136, 152 Cohen, Jordan 28 composting 125, 127, 133 compressed-air vehicle 207-208 compressed natural gas (CNG) 130, 184 condensation 4

Congress, U.S. 137, 174-176, 195-196 conservation farming 167 Consolidated Appropriations Act (2008) 42

cookstoves 195-196 corn 153, 154, 156, 178 cost-benefit analysis 78-79 Costello, Anthony 51 cows 27-28, 151 cranes 117 cruise control 112 CTL (coal to liquids) 189-190

daylighting 91, 94-95

deforestation 193, 233c deposition (acid rain) 74, 76

developing countries 22, 52, 161

Diesel, Rudolf 155

diesel engines 110, 117, 155

diesel fuel xv, 189-193. See also biodiesel diffusion 33

digester gas 188

Division of Air Pollution Control

(Pennsylvania) 69 DOE. See Energy, U.S. Department of Donora, Pennsylvania, smog (1948) 60,

68, 69 drag (resistance) 110 dry deposition (acid rain) 74 dual-fuel loophole 203 Duke Energy 46

eco-mart 91 ecosystems 20

EDF. See Environmental Defense Fund EIA. See Energy Information Administration electricity 93, 177, 222-223 electric power generation agricultural methane 150 coal. See coal power plants global warming reduction 167 green building design 93 green technology 222-223 health effects from pollution 213-214 high-GWP gases from 32 landfill gas 127-128, 129 natural gas 9, 10, 49-50 electric vehicle (EV) 52, 120, 201-202, 202

electrostatic precipitators 147 emissions 6-7, 9, 42-53, 47t. See also greenhouse gases; specific emissions, e.g.: carbon dioxide Enel 163 energy fossil fuels as primary global source 14 future use 221-223 global consumption 21-25, 23t, 24t greenhouse gas emissions from 36-37 measuring 4-5, 5t Energy, U.S. Department of (DOE) 97,

119, 151, 185, 188-189, 219-220 energy audits 97, 98 energy balance 154 energy carrier 182

energy efficiency 85, 91-97, 94, 109-111,

130-135. See also fuel efficiency Energy Information Administration (EIA) 34, 36-37

Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) 119,

175-176, 180, 183, 186, 192-193 energy security 214 ENERGY STAR" program 96-107, 107i,

131, 237c Engelen, Richard 218-219 England. See Great Britain entropy 145

Environmental Bill of Rights

(Pennsylvania) 69 Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)

53-55, 198-199 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR" program 97-98, 106, 107

Fischer-Tropsch diesel tests 190 greenhouse gas regulation 161-162 Green Lights program 89 high-GWP gases 30, 32

landfill methane program 128 municipal energy efficiency 130-135 speed and fuel economy 111 waste reduction 125 EPACT. See Energy Policy Act of 1992 ethanol agricultural sources of 152-154, 156, 156

as alternative transportation fuel 177180, 181 biobutanol and 186 from BTL process 189 for FFVs 202 Europe 25, 60, 63, 64, 163-164 EV. See electric vehicle evaporation 33 Evelyn, John 70-71 exhaust 50 ExxonMobil 143

farming. See agriculture fats 191

fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) 176 feedstock 177 Fein, Jay 59-60 filters 4-5

financial crisis (2008-) 83, 85, 163 Fischer-Tropsch process 190 fish 75-76 Flanner, Mark 145

flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) 192, 202-203 flue gas desulfurization systems 147 fluorine compounds 70 fluorocarbons 28-29 food-borne diseases 54 food chain 76

food production, energy use from 24-25

Ford, Henry 178, 197

Ford Model T 197

Ford Motor Company 208

forests/forestry 76, 152, 167-168

Framework Convention on Climate

Change 234c, 235c Franklin, Benjamin 80c FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies

Program 219-220 Freese, Barbara 148 freshwater 214 friction 110 Friedman, David 162 Friedman, Lawrence 89-90

fuel cells coal gas and 8 hydrogen for 183 natural gas for 10, 50 for transportation 119-121, 174, 203205, 204, 205 fuel economy 111-115, 167, 211 fuel efficiency 109-111, 120, 162, 174,

197-199, 199i fuel technology 170-196 Fukui, Takeo 120, 121 future issues 210-223

air pollution and climate change 212-213

air quality management 215-217 automotive research 219-221, 221 car design 208-209 energy use 221-223 health issues 213-214 public awareness 214-215 satellite technology 218-219

gasification 147-148, 157 gas mileage. See fuel economy gasoline biobutanol and 186-187 BTL process 189 CO2 from 198 CTL process 189, 190 ethanol and 178, 179 for FFVs 202 gas-to-liquids process 190 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) 184 gas-to-liquids process 189-191 gas turbines 10 GHGs. See greenhouse gases Gilliland, Alice 213 glacial melt 13, 14, 51, 79 Global Climate Coalition 143, 146 global dimming 15-19, 17, 60 global financial crisis (2008-) 83, 85 global warming potential (GWP) 6,

29-33, 31i Gore, Al 15, 20, 236c, 237c grain alcohol. See ethanol Grantham Institute for Climate Change and the Environment (London School of Economics) 84 grasses 152, 156, 156 Great Britain

Clean Air Acts 72-73

industrial revolution 63, 64, 66, 80c London smog 60, 68-72, 71 green buildings 88-89, 100. See also green homes green businesses 89-91 green charcoal 193-196, 194 green economy 83 green homes 97, 100 greenhouse effect 27, 57t, 232c-234c greenhouse gases (GHGs) 26-29, 35. See also specific gases, e.g.: carbon dioxide agriculture 149-151 comparisons of contributions to greenhouse effect 57t and ENERGY STAR" program 99, 107 EPA regulation of 161-162 ethanol and 179

global warming potential of 29-33, 311 from LNG production 10 major emitters 33-51, 37t, 38, 39t, 401 Operation Change Out 96t persistence of 83

from solid waste disposal 124-125 transportation fuel emissions 179t U.S. emissions status 41-42 green industrial revolution 83-86 Greenland 234c, 235c Green Lights program (EPA) 89 green power/green technology cars 197-209

EPA recommendations 132 homes 222-223 recent developments 157-164 transportation fuels 170-196 green stimulus package 168 green transportation 108-123, 113-115 compressed-air vehicle 207-208 energy efficiency of cars 109-111 environmentally-friendly cars 121-123, 122t fuel cells 203-205, 204, 205 improving fuel economy 111-115 new technology 117, 117-121, 120 plug-in hybrid vehicles 206, 206-207 ground-level ozone 50-51 GWP. See global warming potential

halocarbons 28 Handan City, China 160 Hansen, James E. 43, 148, 164 Hasnain, Syed Iqbal 195

health air pollution and xv future issues 213-214 global warming and 51-61, 57, 58 green buildings 88 green lighting technology 90 ground-level ozone 50-51 heat island effects. See urban heat island effects heat waves 53, 54, 236c Herms, Joyce 143 HEVs. See hybrid electric vehicles HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) 29, 30 high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes 113 high sulfur coal 3, 70 home appliances 23-24 home energy audits 97, 98 homes biodiesel for 155 global energy use in 23-24 green 97, 100

greenhouse gas production/reduction

221-223 natural gas for 9 waste heat detection 98 Honda 119-121, 123, 201 Hopwood, Nick 28 Hubbert, M. King 68 Hubbert peak 68

hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) 113, 117, 117, 199-201

effect of economic slump on 163 FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies

Program 220 plug-ins 206, 206-207 purchase cost concerns 122 hydrocarbons xv, 2, 8, 11, 115, 183 hydrochloric acid 70 hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 29, 30 hydrogen 10, 185, 203, 205 hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel 191

hydrogen fuel 120, 182-183

ICE. See internal combustion engine idling 112

IEA (International Energy Agency) 43, 188

IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) systems 147 incineration 125

Inconvenient Truth, An (film) 20, 236c India xv, 13, 43, 85, 160, 161 indirect emissions 173 industrialization 79-83, 82, 160 industrial revolution 25, 34, 62-86 industry clean coal technology 146-148 fallacies of arguments against global warming 41-42 and global warming 135-148 high-GWP gases from 32 lobbying by 143, 146 natural gas for 9, 49-50 pollution from electric power generation 136, 136, 139 soot and particle pollution 138-140, 143 infrastructure maintenance 169 integrated gasification combined cycle

(IGCC) systems 147 integrated starter/generator (ISG) systems 110

internal combustion engine (ICE) 110,

178, 183, 200 International Energy Agency (IEA) 43, 188

inversions. See air inversions IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) founding of 234c on global average surface temperature xv and Global Climate Coalition 146 and GWP reference values 30 on human causes of climate change 19 on irreversible rise in global temperature 210-211 mitigation guidelines 165-167 on need for greenhouse gas reductions 25

and public awareness of global warming 79

and soot 13, 138

temperature increase predictions 82-83 iron 64-65

ISG (integrated starter/generator) systems 110 Italy 163

Jacobson, Mark 138, 139 J. D. Power and Associates 121 jet contrails 17, 17

Keeling Curve 233c Koch, Dorothy 140 Kyoto Protocol 161, 235c, 236c

See also biogas landfill methane outreach program

(LMOP) 128 land use 21, 167-168 Lanxiu, Tian 160

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 20-21

LCFS (low-carbon fuel standards) 171-174 Leadership in Energy and Environmental

Design (LEED) 167 Levy, Hiram "Chip" 212 LFG. See biogas; landfill gas Liepert, Beate 15-16 life cycle, of fuels 172, 173 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) 131 lighting 89-91, 94-97, 212 light trucks 116 lignite 3 liquefaction 190

liquefied natural gas (LNG) 10, 130, 184 liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). See propane Liu, Yangyang 145

livestock 150-151. See also agriculture LMOP (landfill methane outreach program) 128 lobbying 143, 146

long-chain alkyl esters 176 Los Angeles, California 55-56 low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS) 171174

Lowe, Leslie 46 low sulfur coal 3

LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). See propane

magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) 8 Mahlman, Jerry 19

manufacturing 24, 32, 63, 160. See also industry manure 149-150 Markel, Tony 207

Marland, Greg 160-161 Marshall, Mike 121-122 marsh gas 157

mass transit. See public transportation materials, advanced 209, 220 McCain, John 236c

MDI (Motor Development International) 208

Merrill, John 145 methane biogas 157, 188 coal combustion 6 green charcoal and 193 greenhouse gas 9, 27-28 GWP of 30 landfills 125, 127, 128 in LNG 10

from manure 149, 150 natural gas 47-48, 183 ruminants 151 methanol 130, 180-181, 181, 190 methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) 180 methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) 191 MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) 8 Middle East 161, 214 mobility of air pollution 217 Model T Ford 197 modernization and global warming

79-83, 82 Monbiot, George 143 monsoons 16

Motor Development International (MDI) 208

motor oil 112

MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) 180

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric

Administration (NOAA) 212 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

(NREL) 206-207 National Research Council Report on Air

Quality Management 215-217 natural gas 8-10

for acid rain reduction 76 and cogeneration 130 emissions from 47-50, 47i gas to liquids process 190-191 hydrogen and 182 methanol feedstock 180, 181 propane and 185 transportation fuel 183-185

Negre, Guy 208 Nickels, Greg 159 nitric acid 74 nitrogen oxides and acid rain 49, 51, 73, 74 from cars and trucks 116 and clean coal technology 147 and fossil fuel emissions xv and natural gas 9, 50 from oil 12

from power plants 4, 78, 137 and smog 48

from transportation sector 115 nitrous oxide 28, 49-50, 125, 127, 151 NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) 212 North Africa 15-16

North American Solar Challenge 220-221 Norway 81c, 148

NREL (National Renewable Energy

Laboratory) 206-207 NRG Energy 46 nuclear power plants 163

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