American Football 101
Are you looking for a way to increase the capabilities of your football team? Is your football team leaving something to be desired? Are you looking to skyrocket your team's effectiveness with the most effective drills and plays?
Talk about the need to get a grip. Talk about icy roads, wet floors and football boot studs. The idea is to change the motion (slowing down, getting faster, changing direction) you need a force. If a footballer, or anyone else, needs to change their motion they need to get a good grip. It is only when you attempt to change your motion and can't get that grip that skidding happens. People often associate skidding, or slipping, with turning corners, and it is true that it is during cornering (or trying to start or stop) that cars and footballers skid. But a skid happens when there is reduced frictional force from the ground, so your attempt to slow down or turn a corner fails, and you carry on in the same direction that you were going. With no frictional force (or grip) there can be no change in motion.
Here's another thing that has always fascinated me about spent nuclear fuel. On a mass and volume basis, there really isn't that much ofit to deal with. According to Understanding Radioactive Waste, 3rd ed. by Raymond L. Murray (Columbus, OH Battelle Press, 1989), the annual spent fuel volume from the 100 or so reactors in the United States would fill a football field to less than a foot deep. Do the math. Assume that those reactors have been running for 50 years (although the U.S. nuclear power program is around 50 years old, the present-day fleet of 100 reactors had only been operating for 20 years or so). Maybe the total volume of waste is a football field 50 feet deep or the height of a five-story building. It's still a small total value.
It is not obvious that air is a real substance, except when it is moving (wind) or trapped as bubbles in water. The air around us cannot sink because we live in an ocean of air. But if it becomes less dense, for example by expansion from heating, the surrounding denser air can buoy it up. Similarly if we compress it, as we do when adding air to a football, it will be denser than the air it displaces, and so will sink, pushing ordinary air out of the way. This is well worth demonstrating to children, using a sensitive balance. Since gases are about 1000 times less dense than condensed forms of matter (solids and liquids), even if you double the pressure in a 5-litre football the mass, measured through weighing, will only increase by a few grams. (See Ross et al. 2002 CD - Atmosphere).
Nickel-cadmium batteries have higher-energy densities and are lighter than lead acid batteries. They also operate better at low temperatures. However they tend to be more expensive. This type of battery was used widely in portable computers and phones but has now been superseded by lithium ion batteries. The largest nickel-cadmium battery ever built is a 40-MW unit in Alaska which was completed in 2003. It occupies a building the size of a football field and comprises 13,760 individual cells.
One of the major advantages of solar power plants is that the energy is free. There are, however, several issues to consider that impact cost and social acceptability. The free energy from the Sun has to be collected and transformed into commercially useful energy. Solar power plants to date cover the area of several football fields and produce approximately 1 of the power associated with a fossil fuel fired power plant. This means that solar power plants will cover relatively large areas and may be considered eyesores by some people. In addition, the technology of maintaining the collectors, and collecting, transforming, and transmitting solar energy is still relatively expensive. Fanchi, 2004, Exercises 7-11 and 7-12
Fill a 50 ml syringe with air and another with water. Ask your pupils to try to compress them - it is impossible to compress the water (but take care - it can squirt out ). Indeed, try suggesting that after your glass of pop is filled you could squash it down and put more in so you don't need to go back for a refill - your pupils will ridicule you. But no one will complain if you attempt to pump more air into a football that is 'full'.
Air is made of atoms, which have mass, so air is attracted to the Earth by the gravitational force. If you pump air into a football the ball gets heavier (a 3-litre pop bottle with a bung and valve is easier to deal with in class, and its mass will increase by about a gram when pumped up with a cycle pump, an increase which can be detected on a top-pan balance). This leads to the important idea that our atmosphere is 'heavy' and is attracted to the Earth by gravity. Why is it, then, that hot air and helium move away from the centre of the Earth - that is, why do they rise They are both made of atoms so must be attracted downwards to the centre of the Earth
Escaping from yet another volcanic blast that they no longer hold any surprise or fear for us, insulated as we are by distance and a lack of true empathy. Although not entirely immune to disaster themselves, the great majority of citizens fortunate enough to live in prosperous Europe, North America, or Oceania view great natural catastrophes as ephemeral events that occur in strange lands far, far away. Mildly interesting but only rarely impinging upon a daily existence within which a murder in a popular soap opera or a win by the local football team holds far more interest than 50,000 dead in a Venezuelan mudslide. Remarkably, such an attitude even prevails in regions of developed countries that are also susceptible to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Talk to the citizens of Mammoth in California about the threat of their local volcano exploding into life, or to the inhabitants of Memphis, Tennessee, about prospects for their city being levelled by a major quake, and they are...
The 1994 samples were collected by workers from the Porcupine Cave project under the direction of R. G. Raynolds. The workers exhumed a small rectangular prism of strata. This oriented pedestal was then covered in plaster and removed from the cave. This specimen, roughly the size and shape of a football, was impregnated with epoxy and dissected for samples. The 30 samples retrieved were subjected to AF demagnetization at steps of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 700 Oe.
The problems caused by our attempts to put roast beef and chicken teriyaki on the table are nothing compared to the consequences of our growing taste for fish. Today's oceans are crawling with football-field-sized factory ships trailing miles of netting that sweep up sharks, dolphins, turtles, and whatever else is out there. We're so good at large-scale fishing, and so lax in deciding who gets to take how much, that the oceans have become a textbook example of the tragedy of the commons, the parable illustrating the point that when it's in everyone's short-term interest to take as much as possible, eventually there's nothing for anyone. Once virtually unlimited populations of cod, haddock, and halibut are crashing, and increasingly desperate factory trawlers are encroaching on each others' territories and moving down the value chain, taking less attractive fish and smaller members of popular species. The UN estimates that 28 percent of fish stocks worldwide are either overfished or...
The production of only 1 kg of helium liberates the heat energy of almost 109 kilowatt hours (kWh) and scientists quickly saw the energy potential of nuclear processes, especially with the discovery of the neutron in 1931. The neutron-induced nuclear fission of uranium into two lighter elements, plus two to three neutrons and a large amount of energy, were observed in experiments at the end of 1938. Only four years later, on December 2, 1942, a nuclear chain reaction with a power of 0.5 watts (W) (and up to 200 W a later time) was sustained by E. Fermi and his team below the Chicago University football stadium.5
With oil rising above 60 a barrel and home-heating costs surging ahead, some people thought the industry would have no choice but to work with government to make the world's largest petroleum-consuming market more secure and less volatile. Bill Frist, majority leader in the U.S. Senate, who is believed to be eyeing the Republican presidential nomination for 2008, threw his support behind a federal anti-price-gouging law. Not to be outdone, Senator Schumer, typically not a shy fellow in front of cameras, rushed to introduce a bill that would place additional taxes on oil company profits to help reduce the deficit and pay for hurricane relief. The whole thing became political football. Even the industry-friendly White House acknowledged that something must be done to fix the supply imbalances that underpin today's high prices.
As organizations grew larger, a need to structure them was developed and the work of Alfred Chandler and Alfred Sloan at General Motors and similar efforts in other companies resulted in the development of the divisionalized organization. The need for large companies to specialize in areas where they had the best competitive advantage resulted in the need to develop strategies and tools for strategy analysis. Thus, organization structures, strategies and strategy development processes were incorporated into the structural capital of organizations. Gradually, some companies, such as GE under Jack Welch, developed strong formalized processes for strategic reorientation, which have become part of the competitive advantages, and structural capital, of these organizations. Nike and others have developed strengths in entering new markets, such as swimwear, football shoes and golf equipment.1
For automotive applications, the Livermore National Laboratory and the Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies have studied URFCs in great detail and found that, compared with battery-powered systems, the URFC is lighter and provides a driving range comparable to that of gasoline-powered vehicles. Over the life of a vehicle, the URFC was found to be more cost-effective because it does not require replacement. In the electrolysis (charging) mode, electrical power from a residential or commercial charging station supplies energy to produce hydrogen by electrolyzing water. The URFC-powered motor car can also recoup hydrogen and oxygen when the driver brakes or descends a hill. This regenerative braking feature increases the vehicle's range by about 10 , and could replenish a low-pressure (about 14 atm) oxygen tank, the size of a football.
Petroleum oil-derived gasoline and diesel fuel are the fossil fuel products most widely used in our daily lives, and which we are most familiar with. Oil production increased rapidly after World War II, making it the dominant energy source over the past half-century (Fig. 4.4). Close to 30 billion barrels of oil were produced in 2004, representing 35 of the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) 14 -far more than coal (23 ) and natural gas (21 ). Renewable energy sources accounted for about 14 of the global energy supply, with nuclear energy providing the remaining 7 . Today, the world is using a staggering 82 million barrels of oil every day, representing the content of more than 50 giant supertankers each the length of three football fields. In a span of two days, we consume today as much oil as the yearly oil production in 1900. The U.S. itself consumes about 25 of that oil. The amount of crude oil produced has increased from 58 to 80 million barrels a day between 1973 and...
Parts of coastal Louisiana and Mississippi could lose as much as 1 foot of elevation within 10 years according to an analysis by the National Geodetic Survey of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA researchers have warned that populated areas will face increased dangers from storm surges and flooding due to ongoing subsidence of coastal areas along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Coastal wetlands in Louisiana have been disappearing at the rate of 33 football fields per day (Bourne, 2004, 89). The NOAA researchers estimate that at the present rate of subsidence, 15,000 square miles of land along the southern Louisiana coast will subside to sea level or below within the next 70 years (Coastal Gulf, 2003). Shoreline in this area is sinking due to natural processes as well as the withdrawal of subsurface oil and water. In southern Louisiana, roughly 1 million acres of coastal
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are not unique as potential targets. As suggested earlier, many other vulnerable targets exist, such as football stadia, opera houses, and bridges to cite a few prominent examples. To the extent that we believe that these facilities are used for desirable activities, we will be reluctant as a society to shut them down. In the same vein, it is likely that attitudes toward terrorist attacks on NPPs correlate with perceptions of the need for nuclear power. The difficulties in reaching a balanced assessment of the risks are suggested in Making the Nation Safer
I turned the top down on the Porsche to get an even better, more spectacular view of the towering devices, which I knew to be the large-scale wind turbines that help supply power to the nearby Coachella Valley. Pulling up along a remote road off of Interstate 10 for an up-close inspection, I sat in the car and stared upward at the giant blades silently spinning overhead, their rotor sweep nearly half the length of a football field.
Plants and flowers and elevators that run on vegetable oil might not be things that leap to mind when talking with Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, whose accent is exactly that of the beer-hoisting fans of Da Bears in the Saturday Night Live skit spoofing the Windy City's football faithful. But Daley was one of the first mayors in the country to go green green building, that is the environmentally friendly designs and materials that maximize energy efficiency and minimize ecological harm. Green building is the centerpiece of the sustainability movement, with its own Good Housekeeping-style rating system. Daley liked the idea of it and the chance to save some money on energy use. Today there are a dozen green roofs in Chicago, plastered with plants and grasses and trees to pump oxygen back into the atmosphere and control the climate of the floors below, and a number of buildings that are required to use recycled materials and other green strategies, like waterless urinals. Daley has also...
THE SUN AND LIVERPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB Liverpool were playing Nottingham Forest at Hillsborough football stadium in Sheffield in 1989. There was a dreadful tragedy where 96 football supporters were crushed to death. Naturally, Britain's most popular newspaper, the Sun, covered the story and in a follow-up article suggested that some fans from Liverpool had been drunk and had looted the bodies of the dead.
When the example comes from people or groups who already enjoy high public standing, the results can be even more far-reaching. For many people today, some of the most influential people are footballers. So when the British club Ipswich Town chose to do something about climate change by becoming carbon-neutral, a lot of people were watching. The club worked out that it produced 3 200 tonnes of CO2 every season and successfully offset this by asking supporters to make specific pledges to save energy. The incentive was football-based when the club hit its target of 14 000 pledges, it was rewarded with a significant sum of money towards transfers by its main sponsor. The fans were encouraged to reach the target by committing themselves to take simple steps like using public transport and high-efficiency light bulbs and turning down their boilers, while some of the players turned to car-pooling. Another club, Manchester City, has begun producing its own energy, building a wind turbine to...
On a football or soccer field, rules for whether the teams are amateur or professional, for how each game must be played, how many players may be on the field at one time, what drugs players may or may not use, and so on, makes the game more disciplined and enjoyable. And within leagues there are often rules on trading players that keep one or two teams from winning too much. Similarly, bounding our political, economic, and ethical playing fields and establishing rules of the games, including rules to limit disparities in outcomes, will greatly increase society's chances of becoming sustainable (and thus much more enjoyable).
In 2000, business and civic leaders helped bring the fortieth Super Bowl to Detroit. While the big game is normally played in warm-weather cities because it takes place in February, Detroit's leaders promised the National Football League that the enclosed Ford Field stadium would be ready by 2006. Hosting the Super Bowl was a big boost for the city it means 125,000 visitors, 3,000 journalists, and potentially 300 million in revenue. The Rolling Stones were scheduled to play at halftime. Not only that, but three years after the Super Bowl announcement, Major League Baseball agreed to play its All-Star Game in the summer of 2005 at newly minted Comerica Park, next door to Ford Field. High-fiving around the chamber of commerce conference table was beginning to be routine. The All-Star Game meant 30,000 visitors, 1,200 reporters, and up to 70 million in revenue. As a finishing touch, General Motors, which had recently moved into the Renaissance Center, a cluster of glass towers in the...
Corn is a major factor in the world's food supply, and when demand for corn goes up, so do the prices. As a result, there are shortages of food in some parts of the world that can least afford shortages. This is becoming a big political football, since the benefits of mixing ethanol with gasoline (E10 is widespread) are very attractive, yet the fact is, people in the world are starving because of it. The key challenge is determining the right balance between corn used for energy needs and corn used for food.
Of all the strategies to make equity part of development policy, the improvement of cities tends to be the most problematic. In cities striving to burnish their image, millions are poured into new ballparks, football stadiums, sports arenas, and convention centers, with hip marketing promotions in a quest to attract the professionals that author Richard Florida calls the creative class. But the economic benefits of stadiums and convention centers tend to be indirect. In Baltimore, city officials are under fire for helping to finance a 300 million convention center hotel near the Inner Harbor marketplace area while residents in blighted neighborhoods just a few blocks away struggle with murders and boarded-up blocks. And revitalizing cities take heat from both the left and the right. Author Joel Kotkin, criticizing gentrifying cities as adult Disney Worlds, believes that the importance of the creative class has been overestimated and that attracting them is a waste of time because the...
In this country, reprocessing is an even more awkwardly shaped football, a hotter potato politically, than a repository. Reprocessing was even illegal, banned in this country by legislation passed by the Carter administration in 1977. Although President Reagan subsequently repealed that act in 1981, reprocessing is still banned by political fiat. However, I am now convinced that this has to be the solution ultimately agreed upon.
Unpleasant effects of hot weather include dehydration, cramps, exhaustion, drowsiness, irritability, and depression. In hot weather, it is important to stay hydrated. This is especially true for children, who often run around with complete disregard for the weather. An easy way to see if you are dehydrated is to weigh yourself at frequent intervals. A liter of water weighs a kilogram a pint weighs about a pound. Thus, for example, if you suddenly lose 4 pounds, you have lost 2 quarts (about 2 liters) of water. That might not be serious if you are a linebacker for a professional football team, but for a 5-year-old child it represents a significant water loss.
Farther downstream, and a short drive down the accompanying highway, is my real office at The Ohio State University. There, within the city of Columbus, the river takes on a vastly different nature. There are few trees to provide shade, and mammalian life is largely restricted to students and squirrels (not to mention the bats inhabiting the antiquated building that houses my Department of Anthropology). In place of the rich biodiversity are classroom buildings, libraries, and an imposing stadium that emits loud roars during Saturday afternoon football games in the fall. It is fun being among the hundred thousand or so people who create the cacophony in the stadium indeed, I love all the trappings of the university and the lifestyle it provides me. But if I want to study biodiversity along the university's stretch of the river, then I have to find life's riches primarily in books and laboratories.
The research for and writing up of this book have taken me on a journey from Keele to Warwick to Brighton. At each stage I have been lucky enough to form great friendships that I would like to acknowledge briefly. At Keele, Ben Seel, Matt Paterson, 'Sparky' Bedwell, Fiona Candelin, Glyn Williams, Rosarie McCarthy, Johnny Mac(Millan), Paul (Alty) Johnson and too many others to list individually, all deserve thanks. Philippa Bell, in particular, was a wonderful companion. At Warwick, the group of individuals collectively known as the 'geezers' (Richard Devetak, Charlie Dannreuther, Rohit Lekhi, Jane Booth and Ben Rosamond) have been a source ofentertainment and life beyond work as well as providing greatly valued friendships. AtIDS, the band, the football team and the rest of the staff have all been great people to be around, and the secretarial support of Linda Bateman has been critical in keeping to deadlines.
America ships to China up to 80 percent of its e-waste. In addition to the U.S., Canada, Japan, and South Korea send their e-waste to Guiyu, China. In 2006, the U.S. exported enough e-waste to cover a football field and rise a mile into the sky. Most of the waste winds up in the small port city of Guiyu. It's a town 4 hours from Hong Kong that is home to 5500 recyclers. Guiyu's location is shown in Figure 7-1.
In places where beaches have disappeared, it is sometimes hard to isolate a single culprit. Rising tides and severe storms, known global warming effects, work together with the ravages of development that stops only at the water's edge. Scott L. Douglass, author of Saving America's Beaches and a professor at the University of South Alabama, worked his way through college lifeguarding on the Jersey shore. Like many beach experts, he worries about higher sea level, but he is also a major critic of the erosion-promoting effects of jetties, seawalls, and dredging. Human activity has removed more than a billion cubic yards of sand from the beaches of America, enough to fill a football field over 100 miles high, he points out.
This has enormous implications for the design of buildings now. Large structures like sports stadia are particularly good candidates for embedded systems which provide heat and power. No more power failures during football matches. The really big incentive is cost. A large stadium has intermittent use but also huge energy costs. It also has a massive roof area which could house acres of solar cells dedicated to producing hydrogen easily sufficient to meet the surge of demand for events by day or night. There would be a backup system of natural gas to provide hydrogen in the unlikely event that solar panels failed to perform adequately. It might require a leap of faith to make the new Wembley independent of the grid but that could be the shape of things to come.