Fish Farming Guide

Tilapia Farming Guide

The Tilapia Industry has an amazingly high demand in the United States. So high, in fact, that the United States has to import Tilapia from Thailand. The Industry makes about 5 billion dollars a year Even if you could get in on 1% of that industry, you'd be sitting on $50 million dollars. Tilapia farming is the wave of the future. NOW is the time to get in on that industry while the competition is low! J.T. Abney, author of the acclaimed book Shrimp Farming Guide now shares the secrets of Tilapia farming in his new book Tilapia Farming Guide. Abney is not selling a getrich-quick scam. His experience comes from a lifetime of work in the Gulf of Mexico, and generations of family experience working fishing and farming in the Gulf. His book covers all the bases on how to raise, feed, and make money off your Tilapia farm. His advice is real, professional advice. If you're looking to make money with no work, look elsewhere. If you want to work hard to get rich honestly, look to the Tilapia farms! Continue reading...

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An Aquacultural Initiative

One of China's responses to land and water shortages has been to vigorously expand aquacultural output, taking advantage of this grain-efficient form of animal protein. Although fish farming goes back some 3,000 years in China, annual aquacultural output did not reach 1 million tons until 1981, shortly after the 1978 economic reforms. It then began to expand rapidly, climbing from 1 million tons in 1981 to 28 million tons in 2002.21 As China's aquacultural output has grown, it has spawned a huge aquafeed industry, totaling 16 million tons in 2003 11 million tons of grain and 5 million tons of soybean meal. Freshwater fish rations are now roughly one third soybean meal, substantially higher than the 18-20 percent soymeal content in livestock and poultry feeds. Traditionally, fish feeds relied heavily on fish meal to achieve the optimum protein content, but with fish becoming scarce, soybean meal has proved to be a readily acceptable substitute for China's largely omnivorous fish...

Farming Technology Improvements

Tim O'Riordan of the Zuckerman Institute for Connective Environmental Research said, We have to put sustainable development at the heart of businesses such as fish farming and agriculture. We need agricultural stewardship schemes that have incentives for farmers to produce according to sustainable principles, which in turn will deliver healthy soil, water and wild life. This, in turn, should offer jobs in recreation and education for eco-care. We also need the involvement of the local community to ensure that all acts of stewardship have neighborhood understanding and support (Urquhart and Gilchrist, 2002, 9).

Aquaculture Blue Revolution

The traditional response to rising seafood demand has been to raise fish in concrete tanks near inland water sources or in huge nets in bays along the seacoast. This is already a very big business, producing about 40 percent of the fish consumed each year worldwide. But it has a whole host of unintended consequences. Diseases run rampant in such close quarters and have to be knocked back with massive doses of antibiotics. Fish that have been genetically altered to grow fast and otherwise thrive in crowded enclosures are escaping and polluting wild gene pools. Inland fish farms require expensive pumps and filters that have to operate continuously a power outage means a lost crop. And as anyone with an aquarium knows, fish are really dirty. A school of 200,000 salmon produce nitrogen and phosphorous that's equivalent to the sewage of a city of 20,000 people the pollution generated by so many fish in such a small space is fouling waters for miles around large shore-based farms. But the...

Trends in Water Demands

As in other Mediterranean countries, many areas of Spain do not have adequate water resources to meet all demands. In case of water conflicts in Spain, the Water Act of 1995 describes a water use list, establishing the following priorities, from first to last in importance water supply in urban areas, irrigation, industrial uses for power generation, other industrial uses, fish farming, recreational uses, and navigation.

Values and resources utilization

The hunting of mammals occurs on a smaller scale and is considered less important. Fish is generally considered to be an important product. Extensive fish farming in the natural wetland areas occurs at several sites in the Delta. The whole fishing policy until now proved to be wrong and it must be reconsidered ecologically.

Increasing the fertility of the seas

If fish farming in enclosed bodies of seawater presents difficulties, why not simply raise the productivity of the open sea by enriching the surface waters over wide areas by the addition of plant nutrients We spread fertilizers on the land to promote the growth of crops why not spread them on the sea

Other Policies to Protect Biodiversity

The Guyanan government is attempting another trial program.9 The Guyanan government is currently protecting a large preserve of virgin forest that protects valuable ecosystems and many endangered species. Because Guyana is a poor country, with 80 of the population below the poverty level, protecting the preserve is an expensive proposition. Allowing timber companies to cut the trees would create many well-paying jobs. For long-term forest protection it is clear that income-generating alternatives must be created. The government hopes that funds from international groups, ecotourism, and sustainable harvesting of some plants will provide enough revenue to justify the trial program. Other proposed revenue programs include fish farming and selling pharmaceutical companies the rights to plants that may produce new drugs. If a recent study that suggests that the value of biodiversity prospecting may not generate enough economic value for long-term protection is correct, other approaches...

Solving the Problem of Resource Misuse

Privatization has worked very well with some species of fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, or fish farming, protects many fish that previously were subject to overuse. Farmraised salmon account for about half (in 1996) of the world's salmon sales, which is an increase from 7 a decade ago.6 Most catfish sold in restaurants and fish markets are raised in private ponds. Clearly, some fish and animals are easier than others to own and protect.

Prospects of increased fish landings

In experiments during the 1950s, J.E. Shelbourne (1964) and his colleagues of the Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory (UK) developed successful methods of rearing large numbers of young plaice by stocking the open circulation seawater tanks at the Marine Biological Station at Port Erin, Isle of Man, with plaice eggs spawned in captivity. Methods were devised for bulk preparation of suitable planktonic food for the developing larvae, mainly nauplii of Artemia salina. A measure of bacterial control was achieved by treating the water with antibiotics and ultraviolet light. In these conditions many thousands of young plaice have been reared to the completion of metamorphosis, and survival rates of over 30 per cent of the original egg stock have been achieved. However it became apparent in due course that the number of artificially reared fry that could conceivably be released into the sea each year is infinitesimal compared with the number produced naturally, and that no significant...

Closed Loop Economies Industrial Symbiosis in the City

Kalundborg Symbiosis

Local economies can also contribute significantly to helping a city achieve a circular metabolism through industrial symbiosis, or the connecting of the wastes and inputs of different businesses and industries. Under such schemes, wastes of one industry become the productive inputs to another. The most notable example (in the world) of industrial symbosis is the industrial complex at Kalundborg, Denmark. Here, truly symbiotic relationships have been developed between a power plant (the Asn s Power Plant), an oil refinery (Statoil), a pharmaceutical company, a plasterboard maker, and the municipality of Kalundborg. The extent of symbiosis is impressive the power company provides excess heat energy to the municipality for use in its district heating system, provides heat to a fish farm, sells steam to the refinery, and provides gypsum from its SO2 scrubbers to the plasterboard maker. It also sells flyash to local construction firms. The

Mariculture requirements and methods

One of the most dramatic examples of recent growth in fish farming has been the exponential increase in the production of salmon in the North Atlantic region. Much of this expansion has been in the siting of floating fish farms in Scottish sea lochs (Lincoln and Howell, 1994 La Tene Maps, 1995). Fifteen years ago, such farms were a novelty. Now there are practically no sea lochs left which do not have at least one fish farm. Annual Scottish production of farmed salmon stands at around 50 000 tonnes whereas ten years ago it was only around 10 000 tonnes (SOAEFD annual surveys see Appendix 4). However, the greatest production in this region comes from Norwegian farms.

Types Of Hydroelectric Plants

Impoundment Hydroelectric Power Plant

A lot of dams, built for other reasons (like irrigation) than power generation, had a hydroelectric power plant added later. In the United States, there are around 80,000 dams. However, only 2400 of these produce power. The majority of the dams are used for recreation, stock farm ponds, flood control, water supply, and irrigation.

The Supply Of Fresh Water

Even if the capture fishing industry optimized its effort, whatever resource rent it earned would be ephemeral. Capture fisheries must compete with aquaculture, which offers lower costs, reliable year-round supplies at huge volumes, uniform and consistent quality, just-in-time delivery, traceability, proximity to markets, and virtually every other competitive advantage imaginable. By the year 2030, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, aquaculture will dominate fish supplies and less than half of the fish consumed is likely to originate in capture fisheries.57 Aquaculture accounts for over a third of the fish humans consume, and over the next two decades, according to the Washington Post, fish farming will largely replace the last commercial food-gathering system based on hunting wild animals.58

Water Harvesting for Supplemental Irrigation

Where groundwater or surface water is not available for supplemental irrigation, water harvesting can be used to provide the required amounts during the rain season. The system includes surface or subsurface storage facilities ranging from an on-farm pond or tank to a small dam constructed across the flow of a wadi with an ephemeral stream. It is highly recommended when inter-seasonal rainfall distribution

Problems

One of the problems of marine fish farming is to find suitable sources of fish food. During their early stages of growth, fish larvae require very small food particles and some take only live food. This need for bulk production of suitable planktonic foods adds to the other problems of fish farming. Even if live food is not essential, minced fish and similar finely divided foods are very prone to bacterial contamination and consequent detrimental effects. There is some hope that the invention of microcapsules as artificial food particles may prove to be a useful contribution to aquaculture. Precise mixtures of food materials suited to the requirements of particular organisms can now be encapsulated within artificial membranes, producing particles of controlled composition and size, some of which are readily accepted as food by certain small organisms or by filter feeders (Jones et al, 1974 1979). Many of the currently farmed finfish species around the world, especially those in Europe...

Pollution

Salmon fish farms can have a major impact on the marine environment. Most sea cages are moored in sea lochs and inlets that previously received minimal waste from the sparse population in the surrounding area. With the arrival of a fish farm there is a considerable increase in the amount of waste entering the water. Figure 19 summarizes the main sources of these wastes. Figure 19. Environmental impacts of cage fish farming on the marine Figure 19. Environmental impacts of cage fish farming on the marine The phosphorus in the waste is usually present in its insoluble form and is not considered to be a serious problem in sea water. It is a problem though in fresh water (see below) because it is a limiting nutrient (see page 30). In sea water, the limiting nutrient is nitrogen, so extra inputs of this can encourage the growth of algae (phytoplankton). There is a possibility that the soluble nitrogen waste produced by fish in a fish farm could result in the formation of algal blooms....

Discounting

The same kind of calculation is involved for livestock, fish farming, wine inventories, mineral resources, or any other investment comparing costs and benefits currently with those that would occur in the future. If we think about an activity that would involve costs today and next year, maintenance costs every year, and benefits starting in year eight and continuing for twenty years, the computations can get complicated. All these different benefits and costs in different time periods can be distilled in one number, the net present value. Net present value (NPV) is the sum of all the discounted benefits and costs of a project or policy. For a project with benefits and costs in different time periods involves evaluating the net benefits in each period t (benefits, Bt, minus costs, Ct), discounting them, and then summing to get the net present value, or

Predators

There are many animals and birds that feed on fish and some of them become a nuisance to fish farmers. Of particular concern are seals, otters, herons, cormorants and other sea birds. The birds can be deterred from catching the young and growing fish at the fish farm by netting the surface of tanks and cages, but this has to be done carefully to ensure that the birds don't get caught in the netting. All the wild birds that prey on farmed fish are protected by law (Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981) so fish farmers are not allowed to trap or shoot the predators. The same applies to the mammals. Seals can be a particular pest because they try to enter the cages under water and can damage the nets. This can result in the farmed salmon escaping if it is not noticed.

Chemosynthesis

Chemosynthesis Cycle

Dioxide in chemosynthetic reactions which parallel the photosynthetic processes of plants, but derive energy from inorganic chemical sources rather than from light. For instance, the bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, which oxidize ammonia to nitrite and thence to nitrate, utilize the energy released by these reactions for synthesizing organic materials within their protoplasm. Beggiatoa and Thiobacillus are chemosynthetic autotrophs obtaining energy from oxidation of sulphide and sulphur. Beggiatoa can be seen as a white mat covering the sea-bed where conditions are anoxic, such as under floating fish farm cages. Oxidation of iron to the ferrous and thence the ferric form is another energy source for chemosynthesis. It is now known that primary production by bacterial chemosynthesis contributes a significant fraction of the food available at depths remote from the euphotic zone. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities (see Section 6.4.4) are entirely dependent for their energy...

Year

Sunlit Zone Fish

Although almost all sardine landings at Kushiro have been reduced to fish oil and fish meal in recent years, sardine landings from other ports were put to different uses. Figure 14.8 shows utilization categories of sardine landings from five major ports (see geographic locations in Fig. 14.4). In Hachinohe, located on the Pacific Ocean side of northern Honshu, a small proportion of the sardine landings are frozen. The proportion of the landings in the frozen category is about 40 percent in Ishinomaki, located south of Hachinohe it is about 70 percent in Choshi to the south of Ishinomaki and it is about 30 percent in Sakai. These differences stem from the fact that along the Pacific coast of southern Japan and in the Seto Inland Sea, young yellowtail called hamachi are widely cultured. Hamachi are fed with defrosted fresh feed such as sandeel, saury, mackerel, and sardine. Needless to say, a stable supply of a low-value feed is indispensable to fish culture sardine presently meets...

Conclusions

It seems probable that marine fish farming and shellfish culture may eventually become more widespread and intensive than at present. However, the economics of these enterprises seem mainly to require the production of high-priced species. Large additions to our food supplies are not yet possible from these sources.

Aquaculture

On a local scale, freshwater fish culture has been practised from early times, in many parts of the world, particularly in the warmer areas. The Chinese were rearing carp 4000 years ago and in developed countries, before the advent of modern refrigeration techniques, the fish pond provided a ready source of fresh protein. Many, usually fast-growing, vegetarian species are cultivated in shallow ponds. The growth of suitable pond weed for their food is encouraged by enriching the water with sewage or organic refuse. Where sunshine keeps the water temperature high, biological processes proceed very rapidly and remarkably high rates of food production can be obtained from efficiently managed fish ponds. Capital and labour costs may be low, and land unsuitable for ordinary agriculture can often be profitably farmed in this way although there are often problems with water supply.

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