Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary

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Fertilizer and Irrigation

In 1847 Justus von Liebig, a German chemist, discovered that all the nutrients that plants remove from the soil could be replaced in chemical form. This insight had little immediate impact on agriculture, partly because growth in world food production during the nineteenth century came primarily from expanding cultivated area. It was not until the mid-twentieth century, when land limitations emerged, that fertilizer use began to climb.17 The rapid climb came as the frontiers of agricultural settlement disappeared and as the world began to urbanize quickly after World War II. With little new land to plow, growth in the food supply depended largely on raising crop yields. And this required more nutrients than were available in most soils. When the world was largely rural, plant nutrients were recycled as both human and livestock wastes were returned to the land. But with urbanization, this natural nutrient cycle was disrupted. The growth in the world fertilizer industry after World War...

Sewage Animal Waste and Fertilizers

Sewage, animal waste, and chemical fertilizers all have a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus. Artificially high levels of these substances in the water promote excessive growth of microscopic or macroscopic plants, in a process called eutrophication. When these plants accumulate, die, and decay, they cause low oxygen content in the water. Even if sewage is treated to remove solids, the liquid discharged contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Intensive cultivation of animals in feedlots, or application of more fertilizer than a crop can absorb, also cause runoff rich in nitrogen and phosphorus that find their way into rivers and estuaries. Vehicle exhausts and industrial chimneys are large sources of nitrogen compounds that are transported in the atmosphere and deposited in coastal waters.

Provincial and municipal recycling and production of biofertilizers

The use of micro-organisms for improving soil fertility had fallen since the 1980s, but was rising again towards the end of the decade Rhizobium, for example, increased from 8300t in 1993 to 11,500t in 1998, and total bio-fertilizer production amounted to 2 million tons (Sinclair and Thompson, 2001 FAO, 2003). The production of worm humus and compost had commenced in 1992 and rose to 78,000t humus and 701,000t compost by 1994. After this it declined to a total production of 600,000t in 1998 (Treto et al, 2002). One worm humus production centre that had seen production drop by 50 per cent had been dependent on cattle manure as food for its Californian redworms. Over the decade, cattle were increasingly grazed outside and so manure was more hard to come by, so it was having to be substituted with filter cake from the sugarcane industry.

Agricultural fertilizers nitrous oxide and the ozone layer

One of society's greatest successes has been the propogation of the human species, as a glance at world population growth will show. This has occurred for a number of reasons, but would not have been possible without a growing ability to supply more and more food as population numbers grew. By the late 1940s and 1950s, this ability was being challenged as population began to outstrip food supply. In an attempt to deal with the problem, new agricultural techniques were introduced into Third World countries, where the need was greatest. A central element in the process was the increased use of nitrogen fertilizers along with genetically improved grains, which together produced the necessary increase in agricultural productivity. Since that time, continued population growth has been paralleled by the growth in the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers (Dotto and Schiff 1978). The nitrogen in the fertilizer used by the plants eventually works its way through the nitrogen cycle, and is...

Soil Fertility Enhancement by Chemical Fertilizers

The use of supplemental nutrients to increase crop yield started as trial and error in the form of wood ashes, ground bones, salt peter, and gypsum. Justus von Liebig (1803-1873), a German chemist, laid the foundation for the use of chemical fertilizers as a source of plant nutrients starting in 1840. He recognized the importance of various mineral elements derived from the soil in plant nutrition and the necessity of replacing those elements in order to maintain soil fertility. Two British scientists, J.B. Lawes and J.H. Gilbert, in turn established the agricultural experiment station at Rothamsted, in the United Kingdom. They built on the work of Liebig and experimentally demonstrated the importance of chemical fertilizers in improving and maintaining soil fertility. In fact, the application of synthetic fertilizers was the basis of the global increase in agricultural production after World War II. Global fertilizer use was merely 27 million tons in 1959 and 1960 it increased five...

Get smart about fertilizers

Fertilizers promote plant growth, making your lawn lush and green. But what's in that stuff you're feeding your lawn Both natural and artificial fertilizers contain elements that help plants grow like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium but they get those nutrients from different sources p Look for low- or no-phosphate fertilizers. As mentioned on page xx1, phosphorus is a plant nutrient, but there's probably already enough of it in your soil to feed your grass. (Have your soil tested if you're not sure.) The phosphorus in fertilizers can run off into rivers and lakes and make algae go nuts, which can choke off healthy bodies of water. Some areas with at-risk lakes have banned fertilizers with phosphates. Natural fertilizers use organic materials to enrich the soil and provide nutrients for your lawn. (Here, organic means that the fertilizer came from a living thing, whether plant or animal.) Grass needs a lot of nitrogen, so these fertilizers contain protein, which can come from...

Box Feedstock for Indias Fertilizer Industry

The government has in the past heavily subsidised fertilizer use in India, because of its importance in maintaining food self-sufficiency. The recent surge in oil prices, however, has increased the financial burden on the government, prompting it to reduce provision for payments to fertilizer producers in the 2007 08 budget. But fertilizer prices have not been allowed to increase and now the producers are facing large losses. The share of energy in the total cost of ammonia production in India is currently about 6. See Karangle, Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers (2007) for more details. 470 World Energy Outlook 2007 - Many fertilizer companies are switching to gas as feedstock. This move will save energy as converting gas into fertilizer is considerably less energy-intensive than converting other feedstocks. Gas availability to meet expected demand growth and gas pricing are, however, matters of concern (see Spotlight in Chapter 15). LNG imports and indigenous output from recently...

Nitrogen pollution due to overuse of fertilizers

Up to two-thirds of chemical fertilizer leaches into groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The associated nitrogen pollution feeds algal blooms which subsequently die and lead to de-oxygenation of surface waters. of N.40 Nearly 850,000 tonnes of chemically active N in nitrogenous chemical fertilizers were used in Japan in 1996.41 In addition, Japanese farm animals excreted a total of 72 million tonnes of liquid and solid waste in 1998.42 Human waste from the giant Japanese conurbations of Saitama-Tokyo-Yokohama-Kanagawa, Osaka-Kyoto-Kobe, and so on, is simply flushed out into the oceans, evoking the image of the water and soil fertility of the American breadbasket being flushed down the toilets of the capital and out into Tokyo Bay. Since Japan is in huge nitrogen excess, it should not have to use chemical fertilizers at all. Working towards that goal will help prevent nitrogen pollution, provide healthier food, decrease fossil subsidies to farming, drawdown on imported energy, and provide...

Fertilizer

Industrial fertilizers and organic materials such as manure add nitrogen to soils. Any nitrogen not fully utilized by the crops grown in these soils undergoes natural chemical and biological transformations that can produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a highly potent greenhouse gas. There is some uncertainty about how to best manage fertilizers, but universities that use large-scale fertilization programs for campus greens, athletic fields, or agriculture may be able to reduce climate change impacts by modifying practices. Techniques that include changing the timing, amounts, and fertilizer type are among the possible solutions. As noted earlier, Tufts has established an organic-turf baseball field.

Fertilizers

Nitrate-contaminated water in the surface soil to percolate through the ground to the aquifer and later be extracted for supplying to homes and businesses. The use of nitrate fertilizer is eight times greater now than 15 years ago, and the contaminated surface water of today may not be extracted for the water supply for another 25 years.2 The UK government has taken action to reduce the risk. So-called nitrate sensitive areas (NSAs) have been identified where ground water is extracted for water supply and there is agricultural activity in the area. In the NSAs, farming practices have to be altered to reduce the amount of nitrate used on crops.

Hydrogen from Biomass

With regard to greenhouse gas emissions, biomass combustion releases CO2 that was previously captured from the atmosphere, so that in this recycling the net CO2 emission is near zero. However, the cultivation of crops requires fertilizers (that need hydrogen in the form of ammonia) and water, as well as energy for the production, harvesting and transportation. All of these factors, together with their environmental impacts on soil, water supply and biodiversity, must be taken into account and the possible consequences of a large-scale intensive energy-related crop farming carefully assessed. Dedicated high-yield energy crops such as switchgrass, which can be grown with minimal energy input, would be preferable, although biomass for energy would still have to compete for huge areas of land with other agricultural products. Algae grown in the vast expanses of the sea could, however, change this picture in the future. In any case, biomass could only be expected to supply a part of the...

How much can greenhouse gases be reduced by improved material management

Several studies have been carried out to determine the potential of material efficiency, (see Worrell et al. 1995a, 1995b Fraanje, 1997 EPA, 1998). Most studies have focused on a single product group or material. Studies on packaging material by Hekkert et al. (2000a, 2000b) have shown that the greenhouse gas emissions associated with packaging material can be reduced by 40-50 per cent by means of material-efficiency measures. Studies by Worrell et al. (1995a, 1995b) have shown that more efficient use of fertilizers and plastic packaging could lead to significant reductions in CO2 emissions (up to 40 per cent). Patel (1999 217) has shown that a limited number of measures in the German plastics industry could lead to a 24 per cent reduction in carbon emissions. In his thesis, Gielen (1999) concluded that ' the potential for emission reduction in the materials system seems to be of a similar magnitude as the emission-reduction potential in the energy system'. In short, several studies...

Pesticides and Food Safety

These adverse effects of pesticides on humans and wildlife have resulted in research into ways of reducing pesticide use. The most important of these is the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), first introduced in 1959. This combines minimal use of the least harmful pesticides, integrated with biological and cultural methods of minimizing pest losses. It is linked with using pesticides only when threshold levels of pest attacks have been identified. There is also a move toward sustainable agriculture which aims to minimize use of pesticides and fertilizers based on a systems approach. SEE also Agriculture Bioaccumulation Carson, Rachel DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane) Endocrine Disruption Integrated Pest Management Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals (PBTs) Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) WAter Pollution.

Increasing Concentrations Of Selected Trace Gases

And is destroyed in the stratosphere. There nitrous oxide reacts with oxygen atoms to form nitric oxide, which can catalyze destruction of ozone. However, unlike the halocarbons, whose origins are unquestionably industrial, nitrous oxide has mostly natural sources. Humans may be increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soils by using ammonia and urea fertilizers. The added nitrogen eventually is returned to the atmosphere, partly as nitrous oxide. Burning coal, which contains organic nitrogen compounds, is another anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide. The rate of increase observed for nitrous oxide is about 0.3 or 1 part per billion by volume (ppbv). Currently, atmospheric levels of nitrous oxide are at about 310 ppbv.

Chemicals and Petrochemicals

China is the world's largest producer of ammonia, which is mainly used to make fertilizer. Production in 2005 reached 44 Mt, or 30 of the world total (ADB, 2006). An estimated 70 of ammonia output is based on coal, 20 on gas and 10 on oil (Figure 9.4). This is in stark contrast with North America, where production is based solely on gas, and Western Europe, where around 90 is based on gas and 10 on oil. Coal-based processes in this sector typically use 70 more energy than gas-based processes (International Fertilizer Industry Association, 2006). China's ammonia output is forecast to increase by only 25 between 2005 and 2030, remaining largely coal-based (on the assumption that natural gas prices remain high). China's methanol production, which totalled 5 Mt in 2005, is set to grow fast with rising demand for road-fuel blendstock (China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association, 2007). Demand for petrochemicals for synthetic polymers is also expected to grow strongly. For strategic...

Building a Greener World

Environmental management makes business sense, as greener and cleaner products and processes meet consumer demands, result in enhanced product marketability, decrease future environmental liabilities, and, ultimately, lower costs. Environmental management fosters a competitive business advantage through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more productive and healthy work force. Companies used to be more concerned with end of the pipe solutions to environmental compliance regulations. Now, as Sandra Woods, vice president of Environment, Health & Safety Systems of Coors Brewing Company, quotes Chairman of the Board Bill Coors, All waste is lost profit. Coors sells its spent grain as fertilizer and recycles its aluminum scraps and cans at its subsidiary, Golden Recycling.

Other Sequestration Methods

Based on a report in Environmental News Network, a company called Carbon Sciences has developed a relatively simple technology that puts the mixture under pressure and temperature to create precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). PCC is a common component of many products used everyday such as paper, plastic, wallboard, food additives, pharmaceuticals, vinyl siding, fencing, agricultural products, and fertilizer.

Initial Estimations for Climate Scenarios from Low Resolution Climate Models

Singh and L. Hunt, A User's Guide to CERES- Wheat - V2.10, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1989. 17 J.T. Ritchie, U. Singh, D. Godwin and L. Hunt, A User's Guide to CER.ES-Maize-V2.10, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1989. 18 D. Godwin, U. Singh, J. T. Ritchie and E. C. Alocilja, A User's Guide to CERES-Rice, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1993. The IBSNAT models were selected for this study because they have been validated over a wide range of environments2 and are not specific to any particular location or soil type. They are thus suitable for use in large-area studies in which crop growing conditions differ greatly. The validation of the crop models over different environments also improves the ability to estimate effects of changes in climate. Furthermore, because management practices, such as the choice of varieties, planting date, fertilizer application and...

Eutrophication in marine waters

Phosphate is not in short supply in sea water and, in most situations, the nitrate concentration is the limiting factor for algal growth. Nitrate enters the sea from sewage discharges and from rivers. We learned earlier that nitrate is readily leached from the soil by rain and as much as 50 per cent of the fertilizer applied to the land can end up in the river.

Underlying theoretical framework

In this section the theoretical framework is discussed, focusing on the intuition underlying the formal assumptions of the model. There are two renewable stocks, of high quality (SH) and low quality (SL), from which water may be extracted. Quality of water in an aquifer may be lower because of marine intrusion, or because of infiltration of fertilizer from agriculture. The two qualities are assumed to be constant over time. However, any intermediate quality may be supplied to the consumers as a result of mixing water from the two sources. Note that, usually, quality choice is studied in the context of product differentiation models. In these models, product quality is directly and consciously chosen in a way that takes into account the competition-reducing effect of product differentiation. Thus, quality choice determines the fierceness of price competition. In the present framework, the causality is reversed. Final product quality is the result of price-setting behavior. Thus,...

Carbon Capture And Storagesequestration

Similar capture technology is used extensively throughout the world in the manufacture of chemicals such as fertilizer and in the purification of natural gas. Storage in underground reservoirs is the most mature and probably most likely sequestration approach. A similar technique is used by the petroleum industry.

The postRevolution farming system Agrarian reform

Prior to the Revolution, only very limited areas had been subject to chemical fertilization, and mechanization was limited to rice and sugar cultivation. Increasing the level of agricultural technology was now a priority of the revolutionary government. New equipment and inputs were imported, supplemented by fertilizer-producing complexes scattered around the country. One of the largest was at Nuevitas, which had an annual production capacity of 200,000 tons of ammonium nitrate, 160,000 tons of nitric acid, 110,000 tons of ammonia and 35,000 tons of urea. Approximately 50 large dams, and more small ones,

The Integrated Utilization of Biomass Energy Is Limited by Technological Problems

Furthermore, the use of animal excrement for the processing of biological fertilizer or feed requires advanced processing techniques, equipment, and investment. It also demands that the scale of centralized production of excrement and the design capability of processing equipment should be matched. However, given the current status of separated cultivation of livestock in China's rural areas, current industrial processing techniques are not appropriate for adoption. Although in many rural areas integrated utilization technology to produce marsh gas from human and animal excrement and crop straw by means of centralized production or family production is highly promoted, this is not always ideal. This is because of the differences of latitude, longitude, and altitude, and differences of climate and heat quantity across China, especially in those areas where the temperature is rather low in winter. Obviously, before the problem of the integrated utilization and treatment of animal...

Limits to Capacity Growth by Fuel

Natural gas market is shifting to accommodate limited resources and higher prices. Industrial customers have moved production of fertilizer offshore of fertilizer, for example, to markets where natural gas still is priced at 2.00 or below. Growth of the industrial sector in natural gas will be limited, and challenged by the perceived growth to the electric power customer base.

Global Links Plant Breeding and Nation States

Not only did plant breeders find themselves part of the modern economy, but also they became indirectly immersed in struggles over who would control land within nations and who would farm. Agriculture's story in the twentieth century is one in which landowners tended to replace human labor with capital inputs in the farm production process. The plant breeder contributed to the process of capital substituting for labor because it was the plant breeder who identified the plant varieties that did best with other capital inputs such as fertilizer, irrigation, pesticides, and machinery. A modest yield transformation could have occurred without the efforts of plant breeding, but the magnitude of what actually happened was critically dependent upon the breeder.

The development of many smallscale highly selfsufficient local economies

There is immense and largely untapped scope for deriving many materials from plants and other sources that exist or could be developed where we live bark for tanning, dyes from plants, tar and resins from distilled flue gases, wool, wax, leather, feathers, paint from oil seeds like sunflowers, and many medicines from herbs. Small animals are easily kept within urban neighborhoods, and can yield many products including leather and fertilizer. Much of their feed could consist of recycled kitchen and garden waste. Timber would come from the woodlots and clay from the local pits. Many of these things would come from the commons we should develop in and around our settlements, including orchards, ponds, forests, fields, quarries, bamboo clumps, herb patches, and so on, which would be owned, operated, and maintained by the community.

Ricardian Estimates for Developing Countries and Canada

That is, NR Q - 1i X, where NR is net revenue per hectare and X is the amount of purchased input i per hectare (mainly hired labor and fertilizer). With such inputs held constant, a yield shock from climate change translates directly into the same change in net revenue ANR AQ.

Organic production strategies

Develop local programmes to assure adequate supplies of organic matter' (Companioni et al, 2002). Organic wastes came from four main sources animal wastes, plant residues, industrial wastes and residential wastes (Altieri et al, 1999). The main organic materials were biotierra (composted sugarcane residues), gallinasa (chicken manure and rice chaff) and cow manure, all supplied by state farms. Occasionally, Azobacter2 was applied as a biofertilizer. In 2000, 69,400 tons of compost were applied, and 80,000 in 2001, at an average rate of 13.5t m3 (Gonz lez Novo and Merzthal, 2002 FAO, 2003).

Extent of Use of Organic Techniques by Farmers Surveyed

Bathroom waste Kitchen waste Terracing Mineral rock Mycorrhiza Rhizobium Mulching Biofertilizers Sugarcane waste Cover cropping Green manure Windbreaks Run-off control Addition of plant wastes Re-afforestation Vermiculture Legume crops Compost Minimum tillage Manure Intercropping Oxen

Anthropogene Warming Period

Niger's agricultural policy intends to achieve food self-sufficiency regardless of climate change. Approaches include methods to survive short-term water stress (including dry cropping in rural areas), hydro-agricultural projects, and use of nitrogen-based fertilizers and manure. These measures will not be able to counter the larger trend of climate change, but only delay it.

Acid Rain And The Terrestrial Environment

Acid Rain Impacted Forests Ontario

Atmospheric acids may be relatively insignificant compared with those from in-soil processes (Krug and Frink 1983). The situation is further complicated when such soils are developed for agriculture. To maintain productivity, it is necessary to make regular applications of fertilizer and lime, which mask acidification.

Portable Energy Sources

Besides hydrogen (H2), other potential portable synthetic fuels which can be made from atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) as feeds, are hydrazine (N2H4) or ammonia (NH3). Hydrazine is a liquid, and ammonia is liquid when compressed at a modest pressure of 16 atm. Both have chemical energy stored in them comparable to petrol, and both produce heat in a combustion engine or can generate electricity via a fuel-cell when reacted with oxygen (O2) from the air. Hydrazine is presently used as a rocket fuel, while liquified ammonia is used as a fertilizer in agriculture. An experimental ammonia-burning ICE was succesfully tested some time ago in The Netherlands. If it is found difficult in the future to fly airplanes with pure hydrogen as fuel, a possible alternative would be to use hydrazine or ammonia as a fuel, if this can be done without significant air pollution. Before these synfuels are acceptable for ICEs, byproduct NOx gases from high-temperature combustion of hydrazine or...

Chemicals in Household Products and Their Effects

Many household products like detergents, furniture polish, disinfectants, deodorizers, paints, stain removers, and even cosmetics release chemicals that may be harmful to human health as well as cause environmental concerns (see the table, Household Products and Their Potential Health Effects ). Insecticides, pesticides, weed killers, and fertilizers that are used for maintaining one's lawn and garden are another source of household pollution. Their entry into the house could occur through air movement or adsorption by shoes and toys, which are then brought inside the house.

Scientific evidence on the performance of organic agriculture

Economic evaluations of organic production were indicating substantial cost benefits. Early evaluation of the CREEs showed the production costs of the cottage-industry manufacturing of biological pest and disease controls to be less than 1 per cent that of importing agrochemicals to do the same job, and the money spent stayed in Cuba and helped build up the local economy (Maura, 1994). The use of green manures was found to save 31 to 75 per hectare (623 to 1503 Cuban pesos), depending on the crops and species used. Both higher crop yields and reduced outgoings for chemical fertilizers contributed to this The combining of two different bio-fertilizers could increase yields more than the use of one alone. Bio-fertilizers could provide up to 80 per cent of nitrogen needs and 100 per cent of potassium needs for a range of major crops (Mart nez Viera and Hern ndez, 1995 Riera et al, 1998). Substituting manure (20t ha) or sugarcane residues (40t ha) for the recommended dosage of mineral...

Making Agriculture and Land Use Climatefriendly and Climateresilient

An agricultural landscape should simultaneously provide food and fiber, meet the needs ofnature and biodiversity, and support viable livelihoods for people who live there. In terms of climate change, landscape and farming systems should actively absorb and store carbon in vegetation and soils, reduce emissions of methane from rice production, livestock, and burning, and reduce nitrous oxide emissions from inorganic fertilizers. At the same time, it is important to increase the resilience of production systems and ecosystem services to climate change.8 Rotational grazing minimizes livestock impacts biogas digesters turn waste into energy and organic fertilizer. Rotational grazing minimizes livestock impacts biogas digesters turn waste into energy and organic fertilizer.

Freshwater eutrophication

Winter Lake Eutrophication

Algal blooms have increased markedly in many freshwater lakes and ponds they also occur in very-slow moving water, in canals and rivers such as the Norfolk Broads. The problem can be attributed to the increasing amount of phosphorus entering the affected waters. We have already seen that phosphates are a major component in modern detergents, but they are also present in human sewage, animal excreta, industrial effluents and agricultural fertilizers. Oligotrophic lakes and ponds are usually found in upland areas where the surrounding soils are lacking in minerals (usually because they have not been treated with fertilizers by farmers). Eutrophic lakes are found in lowland areas the surrounding fields may be well fertilized to encourage crop or grass growth and the inflowing stream may contain effluent from the sewage works of a nearby community.

Farmers experiential evidence on the performance of organic agriculture

Any resulting decreases in soil fertility were put down to poor management coupled with a low use of organic fertilizers, which contributed to erosion. Particularly in the east of the country, and with the absence of chemical fertilizers to maintain a mantle of fertility, the extent of soil degradation due to From the farmers' perspective, many, if not all, of their crop and livestock production lines could perform well under organic management systems, on condition that there were no external disruptions to the system such as heavy pest attack, and that there was ready access to organic inputs. In this case, organic production was technically feasible and could deliver good yields. Comments from CPA farms included 'The reality of the 1990s has demonstrated that it is possible to increase production without agrochemicals' and 'If it is managed to protect from erosion and to have organic fertilizer and good seeds, then yields will not be affected.'

The Continuing Need for Hydrocarbons and their Products

Hydrocarbon Pool Mto

Tumen from natural pools to seal joints in wooden boats, line water canals or inlay mosaics in walls and floors. At that time, liquid oil was also the fuel of choice for oil lamps. The Egyptians embalmed mummies with asphalt, while the Romans used flaming containers filled with oil as weapons. Native Americans used crude oil for medicinal ointments. As mentioned earlier, the modern petroleum industry however, was only born in the middle of the 19th century in America, with the invention of the kerosene lamp leading to the formation of the first oil companies in Pennsylvania. Commercial production was first aimed at fulfilling the growing demand for kerosene used in lamps. At that time, the lighter gasoline was mainly a wasted byproduct of the distillation of kerosene from crude oil, until the early 1900s when automobiles with gasoline and diesel engines became commonplace. Farm equipment powered by gasoline and diesel fuels soon also became popular, dramatically increasing...

Characterization of Contemporary Global Environmental Changes

Burning fossil fuels results in emissions of vast amounts of carbon dioxide and other earth-warming gases that are changing the atmosphere, the productivity of terrestrial vegetation, and are at the highest levels known over the past 400 millennia. More nitrogen fertilizer is applied in agriculture than is fixed naturally in all terrestrial ecosystems (Crutzen 2002). Fishing fleets have depleted the stock of many species, removing more than 25 of the primary production in upwelling ocean regions (Crutzen 2002), and the catches are collapsing. Irrigation and other alterations of surface and underground water are increasing the vulnerability of hydrologic systems and the people that depend on these precious water sources (Crutzen 2002). Agricultural activities have resulted in massive deforestation and alteration of land cover at huge scales - with the amount of land devoted to agriculture increasing fivefold over the past three centuries (Lambin and Geist 2006). In short, human...

The rise and fall of the California sardine empire

Miraflores

The 1860s and sardines had also been used as bait since the 1880s (Smith, 1902). The shift to canning from the 1890s to the 1920s actually created two new industries. The first produced a high quality and highly valued canned sardine for human consumption the second produced protein-rich feed for chickens as well as fertilizer for green plants. The chicken feed and the plant fertilizer were produced from canning waste, using a process called reduction. The value of this by-product soon caused canners to set up their own reduction plants at the canneries. By 1920 the increased demand for sardine meal and fertilizer resulted in some plants using whole fish along with canning waste to produce fish meal, flour, oil and fertilizer. The California Department of Fish and Game became concerned about the direct use of sardine for nonhuman consumption in 1920. Starting in 1920, and excluding only 1923 and 1924, new laws were passed to curtail the use of whole fish for reduction in every year...

Adoption Process of GM Cotton The Case of Kadavendi Warangal

Of the total cultivated land, 54 percent of land was used for Bt cotton, 17 percent of land was used for rice, and remaining 29 percent of land was used for other crops. (See Table 22.2) Because of population pressure on available land and commercialization of agriculture, only 5 percent of land was uncultivated, which was left for grazing purposes. But the gradual disappearance of grazing fields has serious impact on livestock survival and the production of manure. Consequently, this has created favorable conditions for mechanization and the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

Expert Versus Lay Perceptions Of Risk

Whether or where to site and license nuclear-power plants license or ban specific pesticides, fertilizers, other agricultural chemicals, food additives, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceutical products shut solid-waste landfills regulate emissions to the air and water from industrial plants and automobiles clean up existing hazardous-waste sites and many others. The recurring pattern is of a positivist analysis that demonstrates the risks from some action are quite low and of the public disagreeing, (p. 208)

Enhancements In The Profitability Of Pha Production

Bioreactors Lactase Production

Alkaline methanolysis of TAGs results in a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol. When phosphoric acid is used for the necessary subsequent neutralization, cheap green fertilizers are generated (sodium phosphates). The FAME fraction is mainly used as an ecologically benign fuel (biodiesel) that is gaining increased interest because of its better CO2-emission qualities than diesel from petroleum. For example, the public transit system in Graz (Austria) is expected to complete its switch from petrol to 100 biodiesel fuel by the end of 2005 44 . The current worldwide annual production is estimated to be 350 million gallons 32 .

Crops For The Alcohol Harvest

Cassava was originally a New World plant, but its cultivation has been taken up in many tropical countries around the world. Hundreds of millions of people in third world countries derive their sustenance from its starch-filled roots. Yields of 20 tons ha yr can be readily achieved in poor soil without irrigation or fertilizer, and 100 tons ha yr yields are possible under more optimal conditions. Before harvesting, cassava can be stored by being left in the ground, where it is resistant to pests. After harvesting, it can be stored by drying. Its foliage makes good animal feed. Taken together, these characteristics make cassava an excellent crop for small farmers in underdeveloped countries. The one downside of cassava is that, unlike sugarcane, the plant does not provide much in the way of extra biomass to use as fuel to provide the heat required to drive the alcohol production process. So an additional low-cost heat source, such as cellulosic...

Nitrogencontaining Compounds

In addition to natural nitrogen fixation, human activities have led to biological and industrial fixation and fixation by combustion. Humans have increased the cultivation of legumes, which have a symbiotic relationship with certain microorganisms capable of nitrogen fixation. Legumes provide an increase in the soil nitrogen and serve as a valuable food crop. Industrial nitrogen fixation consists primarily of the production of ammonia for fertilizer use. Combustion can also lead to the fixation of nitrogen as NO t. In the process of nitrification, ammonium is oxidized to N02 and NOJ by microbial action. N20 and NO are byproducts of nitrification the result is the release of N20 and NO to the atmosphere. Reduction of NO to N2, N02, N20, or NO is called denitrification. Denitrification is accomplished by a number of bacteria and is the process that continually replenishes the atmosphere's N2. Figure 2.2 depicts the atmospheric nitrogen cycle.

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture implies profitable farming on a continuous basis while preserving the natural resource base. It is not synonymous with low-input, organic, or alternative agriculture. In some cases, low input may sustain profitable and environmentally sound farming. In others, it might not. The addition of organic amendments might enhance soil quality, but may not eliminate the need for the judicious use of fertilizers. Large quantities (10 to 20 ton hectare year) of organic manures are needed to supply enough nutrients to produce the desired yields. Therefore, the use of organic manures, although desirable, may not be logistically feasible. In sub-Saharan Africa, low inputs on impoverished soils and low yields have been responsible for low standards of living, severe malnutrition, and widespread problems of soil and environmental degradation. Therefore, the adoption of RMPs is a necessary prerequisite to feeding the earth's expected ten billion inhabitants by the year 2100....

Overfertilizing with Nitrogen

Earth's atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but it is not biologically active. Bacteria such as those associated with legumes fix nitrogen, changing it to a biologically active form, which plants can use. But we humans have started fixing nitrogen also. Today, the man-made nitrogen comes primarily from two sources about 75 percent from fertilizers and 25 percent from fossil fuel combustion. At present humans are fixing as much nitrogen as nature does. Once fixed, nitrogen remains active for a long time, cascading through the biosphere.

Solutions To The Problem Of Acid Rain

Problems Acid Rain

One possible input is the addition of lime, which would produce an immediate reduction in acidity, and allow the recovery mechanisms to work more effectively. Lime has been used as a means of sweetening acid soils for many years, and may be the reason that in areas of acid soils agricultural land is less affected by acid rain than the natural environment. In areas where natural regeneration is no longer possible, the restoration of the original chemical balance of the soil by liming and appropriate fertilizer application might allow reforestation to be successful.

Creating Highcarbon Cropping Systems

Currently two thirds of all arable land is used to grow annual grains. This production depends on tilling, preparing seed beds, and applying chemical inputs. Every year the process starts over again from scratch. This makes production more dependent on chemical inputs, which also require a lot of fossil fuels to produce. Furthermore, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer is a major source of nitrous oxide emissions, as noted earlier.22 In contrast, perennial grasses retain a strong root network between growing seasons. Hence, a good amount of the living biomass remains in the soil instead of being released as greenhouse gases. And they help hold soil organic matter and water together, reducing soil erosion and GHG emissions. Finally, the perennial nature of these grasses does away with the need for annual tilling that releases GHGs and causes soil erosion, and it also makes the grasses more conservative in the use of nutrients. In one U.S. case, for example,...

Frogs Threatened Worldwide

In North and South America, the Caribbean, and Australia, a major culprit appears to be the highly infectious fungal disease, chytridiomycosis. New research shows that prolonged drought may cause outbreaks of the disease in some regions, although some scientists attribute the disease spread to global warming. Other threats include loss of habitat, acid rain, pesticides and herbicides, fertilizers, consumer demand for frog legs, and a depletion of the ozone layer that leaves the frogs' skin exposed to radiation (Seabrook, 2004, 1-C). Gibbons said that the loss of wetlands and other habitat to development, agriculture and other reasons might be the leading cause of amphibian declines in Georgia. Pollution might also be playing a significant role, he said. It's hard to find a pristine stream anymore, he said (Seabrook, 2004, 1-C).

Nigerias Ogoniland a Region of Contrasts

In the African country of Nigeria, the Ogoni people have struggled for control of their land since the colonial period 32 . In the late 19th century the Ogoni people staged a strong armed resistance against colonial occupation of their territory until 1908 when the region was secured by the colonial power 42 . Ogoni is an area of half a million people in the Niger Delta 43 . The Delta region produces 90 of the country's foreign earnings, making Nigeria the seventh largest producer in OPEC. Ogoniland is the home of Nigeria's major fertilizer plant, two oil refineries, a large petrochemical plant and other oil-servicing businesses. By 1972 there were six oil fields producing a combined daily output of more than 200,000 barrels of oil. In the mid 1990s, in response to the Ogoni people's peaceful protests, the ruling military dictatorship imposed direct military rule. During these years more than 3000 people died.

Reduction and Regulation of Marine Pollution

There is much that individuals can do to prevent marine pollution avoid putting toxic substances into drains, avoid dropping litter, minimize the use of pesticides and fertilizers, reduce automobile emissions, and pressure your local government for sewage treatment in the community if it does not yet exist. Larger-scale problems require legislation and enforcement, ranging from the local laws of coastal states in the United States, through national laws such as the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act, to international conventions such as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. Such laws are effective only if they have the support of the people. see also Acid Rain Clean Water Act Cryptosporidiosis Fish Kills Hypoxia Mercury Ocean Dumping PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) Petroleum Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Act Snow, John WAter Treatment Wastewater Treatment.

Soil Erosion and Agriculture

Historically, when most of the topsoil was lost, farmers would abandon the land. Now, however, farmers continue to plow the soil, even when it consists of as much subsoil as topsoil. It costs more money to produce food on such land than on land where topsoil is present. Farmers often use more fertilizer to make up for the decreasing productivity of the soil, and that, in turn, adds to environmental pollution.

Amounts And Forms Of Energy Consumed By

To replace all the world's petro-fuel and electric energy with synfuels and electricity derived only from bio-mass, will take about (9.1 billion kW) (1.5kW acre) 6 billion acres of arable land. To grow, harvest, and process bio-crops, one needs tractors, fertilizers, processing operations, etc., which all consume energy. Proponents of biofuel production claim this takes less than 90 of the alcohol energy produced by corn crops for example. Assuming that improvements can lower this number to 80 , bio-fuel production would need five times more land, or 30 billion acres to generate a net of 9.1 billion kW of marketable portable bio-fuel. Since the world's total arable land is about 8 billion acres, this is four times more than what is available. The total surface area of the world's land mass is about 37 billion acres (the USA has 2.24 billion acres), much of which is permanently frozen. Clearly it is impossible to accomodate the world's energy needs if one depends only on bio-mass....

Nuclear Facts And Fables

Should the development of fuel-cell engines for automobile propulsion prove difficult, use of today's ICEs might be continued for a while after oil and gas reserves are gone, by fueling them with manufactured portable synfuels instead of petrol. With assistance of electric power, coal and water can be converted to syn-petrol (synthetic petrol) as is presently done in South-Africa's SASOL plant. Other synfuels producible with the assistance of electricity are hydrazine and ammonia synthesized from air and water, and ethanol obtained from sun-grown corn. To be efficient, the energy packed into a portable synfuel should not greatly exceed the amount of electric energy needed for its manufacture, although some energy conversion losses are justified. A nuclear plant does not fit in a car of course. To make abundant uranium-generated energy available for automotive uses, some losses are acceptable when this energy is converted and locked up in a portable synfuel or hydrogen. In making...

Desertification and Global Interdependence

Export-oriented crop cultivation is typically accompanied by water shortages due to large scale irrigation, water pollution through the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and soil degradation both by sterilization and saliniza-tion. Either of these ecological impacts can be a driver of land degradation and accordingly increases the risk of desertification in dryland regions. Moreover, large-scale agricultural production for the world market bears the risk that rural populations may be further marginalized in terms of access to both land and markets, thus potentially off-setting whatever alleviation might be achieved through economic growth. Indeed, the globalizing aspects of the political economy would arguably benefit some stakeholders while others are left behind and unable to improve their lot in the globalization process 2 .

Why Does the Government Need to Reform Gas Prices

The current APM price for power and fertilizer feedstocks is 1.90 MBtu. The gas price for CNG vehicles is about 2.40 MBtu. All other APM gas consumers pay more. The prices for non-APM gas are generally based on the price of regasified LNG being imported into India from Qatar under a long-term supply contract. During 2006, spot cargos of LNG were brought into India at prices up to 12 MBtu, which is high by international standards. In 2006, the average price of LNG in the Pacific was around 7 MBtu. Taxes and duties on LNG are levied in India at both the federal and state levels.

The further industrialization of Cuban agriculture

Given the hierarchical structure of pre-Revolution agriculture, Cuba found itself with few agronomists or technical specialists, most of them having fled the country. Traditional farmers still existed, but the prevailing political outlook placed greater trust in science and technology than local knowledge, and so Cuba developed a national agricultural system using imported technical expertise mainly from Eastern European countries. This led to the development of modernized, large-scale systems using techniques that had been developed in temperate regions, systems that were similar to, but more intensive than, the previous US-style plantation agriculture. The emerging Green Revolution technologies of the 1960s and 1970s were readily compatible with this approach, with their monocropping over large extensions, and their intensive use of machinery (tractors, harvesters and aviation), chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as well as of livestock feeds. The state applied this approach to...

Methanol and Vegetable Oils

Processed vegetable oils from soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, and other oil plants can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Unfortunately, producing vegetable oils for use in diesel engines is costly in terms of economics and energy (Pimentel and Patzek 2005). A slight net return on energy from soybean oil is possible, if the soybeans are grown without commercial nitrogen fertilizer. The soybean under

Chief routes of entry of marine pollutants

Many pollutants reach the sea either through direct drainage from coastal towns and industries or indirectly via rivers. Dilute industrial effluents, treated sewage and cooling water are often discharged into rivers and estuaries. Fertilizers, pesticides and animal wastes may drain into rivers from agricultural land. Huge amounts of silt resulting from rainforest clearance are carried down to the sea by tropical rivers. Rainwater runoff from cities and towns carries oil, heavy metals and other material into rivers. A surprising area of sea-bed around domestic sewage outfall pipes is often contaminated with oil (Dipper, pers. obs.).

Spaceage Technology Shapes Modern

The Age Modern Sensing And Gis

The fields across a farm can vary greatly. Soil fertility might differ from one area to the next, some areas might retain water more easily than others, and the topography might vary. In the past, a farmer would have made decisions about planting, fertilizing, irrigation, and pesticide applications based on the average characteristics of a field. So some areas of the field would then receive too much fertilizer, while other areas of the field would not receive enough. Precision farming allows farmers to account for the differences across the field, which can increase crop yields, reduce waste, and protect natural resources. Precision farming relies on tools called the geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). These layers are used to create detailed maps of the farm which can be used to plan for future crops, and to help plan where fertilizer or herbicides should be applied. GPS navigation A system of satellites in orbit around Earth constantly relay...

Social movements and the making of technoscience

Especially important for the social movements that were to develop in the 1960s and beyond was the fact that scientific research was placed at the center of postwar economic development. Many of the economically significant new products - nylon and other synthetic textiles, plastics, home chemicals and appliances, television - were directly based on scientific research, and the new techniques of production were also of a different type it was the era of chemical fertilizers and insecticides, of artificial petrochemical-based process industries and food additives (Bookchin 1963 Commoner 1971).

Stories from the Field

Then I saw a movie about global warming and realized I had already begun to change my lifestyle toward living more green without too much difficulty, so why not continue I researched how to do so and found more information than I could digest. Starting small, we bought a water heater blanket, adjusted the thermostat to reflect the season, and changed all of our old lightbulbs to compact fluorescent. Immediately, we noticed a decrease in our gas and electric bills. The air conditioner got a summer off, and we installed a solar-powered attic fan to keep our suburban Salt Lake City home cooler during summertime. Our family began using organic methods in the garden instead of oil-based pesticides and fertilizers. When possible, we try to buy locally produced, fresh food. We are purchasing blocks of wind power. In the future, we are remodeling our fifty-year-old home to include hydroradiant floor heating. Another goal is to install solar panels to power our home and feed clean energy back...

Proposed Cellulosic Ethanol Refineries

To see how very different the new fossil-energy-free world will be, let's compare power from Iogen's plant with that from an oil well in the US. Ever more power is what we must have to continue our current way of life (cf. Footnote 5). Iogen's plant delivers the power of 7 barrels of oil per day (68 kW). Average power of petroleum wells in the largely oil-depleted US was 10bbl (well-day)-1 in 200612 (98 kW). Therefore, an average US petroleum well delivers more power than a city-block size Iogen facility in Ottawa and its area of straw collection, probably 50 km in radius, which at this time is saturated with fossil fuels outright and their products (ammonia fertilizers, field chemicals, roads, etc.). The petroleum well also uses little input power unfortunately, soon petroleum will not be a transportation option. Such is the difference between solar energy stocks (depletable fossil fuels) and flows (daily photosynthesis).

The Cuban food system in crisis

Food Cuba Crisis

Ever since its Socialist Revolution of 1959, Cuba has maintained restricted and selective contact with non-socialist countries. From an international perspective, this has resulted in a relative dearth of knowledge on all aspects of Cuban life, and a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence. Nevertheless, there was no doubt that the dissolution of the Socialist Bloc of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in 1989 had brought an abrupt end to the support it had provided Cuba, and with this went the inputs that Cuba had relied upon to maintain its highly industrialized system of agriculture - petrol, machinery, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The abrupt changes of 1989 hit the Cuban agricultural sector particularly hard for four reasons. Firstly, Cuba had an extreme industrialized agricultural system, one that was using more tractors and applying more nitrogen fertilizer per hectare (192kg ha) than similar production systems in the USA (Hamilton, 2003). Mechanized irrigation systems...

Air and Water Quality

Water policy was initially based on concerns about human health, and about making sure that drinking and bathing water were clean enough for human use. In the 1980s the emphasis began to shift towards protecting the aquatic environment, and four main strategies have since been used an effect-oriented approach based around the setting of quality standards for water intended for different uses a source-oriented approach aimed at preventing pollution at source by setting effluent standards for dangerous substances a product-oriented approach that sets standards for potentially pollutive commodities such as fertilizers and detergents and the setting of design specification standards for boats and ships aimed at preventing oil pollution.

Managed Bioremediation

When bioremediation is applied by people, microbial biodegradation processes are said to be managed. However, bioremediation takes place naturally and often it occurs prior to efforts to manage the process. One of the first examples of managed bioremediation was land farming (refers to the managed biodegradation of organic compounds that are distributed onto the soil surface, fertilized, and then tilled). Many petroleum companies have used it. High-molecular-weight organic compounds (i.e., oil sludges and wastes) are spread onto soil and then tilled into the ground with fertilizer, as part of the managed bioremediation process. Good conditions for micro-bial biodegradation are maintained by controlling soil moisture and soil nutrients. In 1974 R.L. Raymond was awarded a patent for the bioremediation of gasoline. This was one of the first patents granted for a bioremediation process. Since about 1980, prepared bed systems have been used for bioremediation. In this approach,...

Analysis And Comparison Of Lifecycle Assessment Studies

Several studies differentiate between terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication potential (e.g., 17 ), others, such as 5, 9 , choose a different method and give total eutrophication potential. We follow the latter approach and uniformly calculate eutrophication potential as the sum of terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, expressed in phosphate equivalents. We further assume that the carbon dioxide originating from biomass is equivalent to the amount that was previously withdrawn from the atmosphere during the growth period of crops and, therefore, does not contribute to global warming. Fossil fuels required for transport and processing of biomass as well as the production of auxiliaries (e.g., application of mineral fertilizers) are, however, taken into account. For the comparison of biobased energy, fuels, and materials with their fossil counterparts, land is only used for the production of biobased products. This means that no reference land use is defined for fossil-based products...

Spillover effects of the Eu ETs

Worldwide, energy-intensive industries are responsible for about 50 per cent of GHG emissions. About three-quarters of these emissions are caused by industries that produce iron and steel, aluminium, chemicals, fertilizers, cement, and pulp and paper. The emissions intensity makes these industries important targets for climate-change policy, as is the case in the EU ETS. At the same time, particularly under the free-trade regime of the WTO, some of these industries are particularly vulnerable to global competition. If higher production costs resulting from climate change abatement policy prevail, then it is likely that shifts in market share or relocation of production will occur. Industrialized countries have already been losing global market share in the production of energy-intensive goods over the past three decades, and even though most of this was demand-driven that is, caused by the development of new markets and by increased demand in developing countries for building and...

Soil Science There Is No Waste Biomass

Soil creatures and fungi are the immune system for plants. They protect them against diseases, weeds, and insects - when this living community is harmed by agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, even more chemicals are needed in an increasingly vicious and harmful cycle which eventually kills the living soil through starvation, toxicity, and chemical transformation.19 Many plants want animals to eat their seed and fruit to disperse them. Some seeds only germinate after going through an animal gut and coming out in ready-made fertilizer. Seeds and fruits are easy to digest compared to the rest of the plant that's why all of the commercial ethanol and biodiesel are made from the tasty parts of plants the grain, rather than the stalks, leaves, and roots. The total removal of all parts of plants, including the cellulosic parts we don't eat, (husks, stalks, and roots), misleadingly termed residues, deprives the soil of water, carbon, and other nutrients24 which artificial fertilizers do...

Problems With Ocean Iron Fertilization

Nearly half of the Earth's photosynthesis is performed by phytoplankton in the world's seas and oceans (Chisholm, 2000, 685). In the equatorial Pacific and Southern Oceans, Sallie W. Chisholm, a marine biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote in Nature that it is possible to stimulate the productivity of hundreds of square kilometers of ocean with a few barrels of fertilizer (Chisholm, 2000, 686). Atsushi Tsuda and colleagues have studied iron fertilization and have found that, under some circumstances, iron fertilization can dramatically increase phytoplankton mass (Tsuda et al., 2003, 958-961).

Resource Scarcity As A Driver Of Innovation

One last example is worthy of mention. The rapid population growth in Europe during the early 19th century that had alarmed Malthus outstripped European agriculture and threatened food shortages.21 A German chemist, Justus Leibig, called attention to the need for fertilizers in agriculture, both to replace nutrient elements (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) removed from the soil by harvesting, and to supplement natural stocks in the soil and thus increase agricultural productivity (Leibig 1876). Natural fertilizers - notably guano and nitrate deposits from the west coast of South America - were exploited at first, but supplies were very limited. Super-phosphates were made from bones, and later from mineral apatites (phosphate rock). Germans also began to extract ammonia from coke oven gas to manufacture synthetic nitrates. But more was needed. An international race to develop practical means of 'fixing' atmospheric nitrogen led to the development of three processes early in the...

Water quality the policy response

Requires action on pollution of water from nitrates in inorganic fertilizer and manure. In addition to trying to impose controls on water pollution from industrial processes, the EU had begun trying to address the impact of agriculture on water, notably through laws on the content of fertilizers and the control of nitrate pollution. The early rules on fertilizers established requirements for labelling, and placed limits on the quantities of chemicals such as boron, cobalt and manganese in fertilizer. The main nitrate directive (91 676) was focused more on reducing water pollution caused by the storage and use of inorganic fertilizer, and required that member states identify the areas most in danger of nitrate pollution, and develop action plans to prevent the problem becoming worse. It was prompted by the need to 'protect human health and living resources and aquatic eco-systems and to safeguard other legitimate uses of water'.

Exhaustion of foodproducing land and water

Using heavy irrigation and fertilization, modern agriculture sows the same crop again and again land is seldom left to recover ('lie fallow') or planted with nitrogen-fixing clovers. If the soil gives signs of exhaustion, more and more fertilizer is applied until not even this can help. Constant watering leads to salt accumulation, but that too is disregarded until crops fail. Because of enthusiastic pesticiding of the weeds which would hold it together and reduce evaporation, topsoil is more easily salinized or washed away or blown away. Population pressures and the selfishness of large landowners often cause intensive use of new, marginally fertile soils, which are quickly degraded. However, degradation can be equally In the waters the situation looks depressingly similar. In rivers and in lakes, fish catches have declined sharply because of pollutants. These include nitrate fertilizers and phospates which cause eutrophication plants overgrow and then rot, removing almost all the...

Box Coal Based Alternative Fuels

China is becoming increasingly dependent on oil imports, so the attraction of technologies that can convert coal into various liquid fuels is clear. The technology is available and the economics have become more favourable in recent years, due to surging oil prices. Some such fuels can be used directly as transport fuel, while others ease oil demand by substituting for petrochemical feedstock. For example, coal gasification can replace oil gasification to produce syngas for fertilizer manufacturing, while methanol is a basic building block for plastics, paints and construction materials. Methanol can also be blended with gasoline or used to produce dimethyl ether (DME), which in China is being promoted for blending with LPG. Integrated coal gasification and methanol and DME production seem particularly promising. In 2006, NDRC announced a plan to invest more than 128 billion in the development of alternative coal-based synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock to ease oil import...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping pollution.

Global Environmental Policy Learning

The case studies29 show a close relationship between per capita GDP and environmental indicators. Wealthier countries both need and can afford more environmental protection. Although the relationship between affluence and environmentalism is significant, it also is contradictory economic development leads to both improvements and deterioration in environmental quality, with significant differences in environmental area. For example, reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions and the extension of sewage systems parallel growth in GDP. But carbon dioxide emissions and fertilizer consumption increase up to a certain per capita GDP and then stabilize. Road traffic emissions are higher in rich states. The volume of waste generated also rises in rich states. There is an increasing accumulation of pollutants in rich states (which are older, industrial societies) and less biodiversity. The

The collapse of soil fertility mining the soil

Modern agriculture relies on steady inputs of inorganic chemical fertilizers. For grain crops under North Korean soil and growing conditions, the amount required is 400-500 kilograms per hectare (kg ha) of the basic macronutrients nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium (NPK). UN and DPRK agricultural experts estimate the total North Korean requirement at 700,000 tonnes year (NPK).22 The actual bulk amount of fertilizer required to fulfill this demand would be of the order of 1.5-2.5 million tonnes year, since the nutrient content of specific fertilizers differs (for example, urea contains more than twice the amount of nitrogen than ammonium phosphate per unit weight). Historically, the DPRK had manufactured 80-90 percent of its fertilizer requirement, importing about 20 percent of its phosphate fertilizer, and all of potassium fertilizer.23 The calamitous decline in fertilizer production is a result of fertilizer factories being out of operation or operating at minimal levels. This was...

Notes and further reading

Food, farming, fertilizer 15 kWh d 78 The embodied energy in Europe's fertilizers is about 2 kWh per day per person. In 1998-9, Western Europe used 17.6 Mt per year of fertilizers 10 Mt of nitrates, 3.5 Mt of phosphate and 4.1 Mt potash. These fertilizers have energy footprints of 21.7, 4.9, and 3.8 kWh per kg respectively. Sharing this energy out between 375 million people, we find a total footprint of 1.8 kWh per day per person. Sources Gellings and Parmenter (2004), International Fertilizer Industry Association 5pwojp .

Dual Nature of Agricultural Renewable Energy Substances as Energies and Resources

As fertilizer, for example, crop straw, animal excrement, and sludge in aquaculture ponds can be used as agricultural fertilizers or be used to produce organic fertilizer products, such as bacterial manure and microelement fertilizers, for special use through innocuous and industrialized processing

Case Study Using GISRemote Sensing to Study Amazonian Deforestation

Land change begins with the clearing of forest through slash-and-burn techniques, commonly followed by the planting of annual crops or the creation of pastures. In some cases, fields are kept in cultivation continuously, but this is rare. Only in areas with alfisols of relatively high fertility with favorable texture are there examples of continuous cultivation for over 25 years with some crop rotations in place (Moran, Brondizio, and McCracken 2002). In most places the low nutrient conditions of oxisols and ultisols, dominant in over 75 percent of the Amazon Basin, present constraints to continuous cultivation without major fertilizer inputs - which remain prohibitively expensive throughout most of the Amazon Basin. Without fertilizers, farmers have tended to plant pastures and graze cattle at very low densities as a preferred strategy. Cattle ranching has a long tradition in Latin America and receives favorable treatment by policy makers as a repository of value and a hedge against...

Ozone Layer Depletion

The ozone present in the stratosphere, at altitudes between 12 and 25 km, plays a natural equilibrium-maintaining role for the earth through absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (240-320 nm) and absorption of infrared radiation (Dincer, 1998). A global environmental problem is the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, which is caused by the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons (chlorinated and brominated organic compounds), and NOx. Ozone depletion can lead to increased levels of damaging UV radiation reaching the ground, causing increased rates of skin cancer and eye damage to humans, and is harmful to many biological species. It should be noted that energy-related activities are only partially (directly or indirectly) responsible for the emissions that lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. The most significant role in ozone depletion is played by the CFCs, which are mainly used in air conditioning and refrigerating equipment as refrigerants, and NOx emissions,...

Degradation of the natural resource base

Evidence also indicates that organic farming approaches produce lower greenhouse-gas emissions. The reasons for this are threefold they avoid ammonium nitrate fertilizer (the production of which was responsible for 10 per cent of Europe's industrial gas emissions in 2003), they encourage carbon sequestration through cultivation of deeprooting plants, and livestock's methane emissions are lower if they are feeding on legume pasture (Hamer and Anslow, 2008).

Looking Back to Look Forward

The oil industry's highly branched marketing system which supplies the oil merchants and fuel stations from a few central refineries is also becoming more regionalized. Regional biofuel production centres are being established, processing raw biomass and setting up regional marketing structures. New production cooperatives for biofuels are being set up or municipal utility companies are taking on this function as biomass customers. At the same time they are selling secondary usage products, fertilizers or feedstuffs made from the material left over from biofuel production.

Petroleumbased food systems and food security

Over the next few decades, nations will be experiencing fluctuations and increasing scarcity of fossil fuel supplies, and this will affect food prices. Alternative farming and food systems are required. Industrialized countries in particular have been over-consuming fossil fuels by two-thirds, and their agricultural sectors have contributed this with their heavy dependence on cheap fossil energy for mechanization and as a basis for agrochemical inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers. The corresponding industrial food systems in which these farming systems are embedded are similarly dependent on cheap fossil fuels for the ever-increasing processing and movement of foodstuffs. The low fuel prices, combined with the industry's avoidance of paying clean-up costs of environmental pollution, have enabled the maintenance of low food prices (Vandermeer et al, 1993 Odum, 1994 Tansey and Worsley, 1995 Desai and Riddlestone, 2002 Harrison, 2004). Alternative, organic agriculture shows to...

International trade alleviating national water scarcity

2004), so that the cost of the virtual water is 0.16 US m3 at most. In fact, the cost will be much lower, because the costs of the imported wheat cover not only the cost of water, but also the costs of other input factors such as land, fertilizer, and labour. In Egypt, fertile land is also a major scarce resource. The import of wheat not only releases the pressure on the disputed Nile water, but also reduces pressure to increase the area of land under agriculture. Greenaway et al. (1994) and Wichelns (2001) have shown that in the international context Egypt has a comparative disadvantage in the production of wheat, so that the import of wheat into Egypt implies not only physical water saving, but also an economic saving.

A case history of a eutrophic lake

That discharged into the feeder river. In other lakes, the nutrients can enter the water in drainage from agricultural land. Farmers add fertilizers to increase the growth rate or size of their crops (see Chapter 4). This particularly applies to arable (vegetables) farming, where the amounts added to the crops are greater than for stock (animal) farming. Fertilizer Not all the nutrients stay in the soil and some are washed into streams by rain. The amount of the nutrients that enter the streams depends on many factors such as the type of soil and crop, the slope of the land, how much fertilizer was applied, etc. In general, the nitrate is more readily washed out (leached) from the soil than phosphate whilst the potassium is most strongly attached to the soil. The loss of nitrate can vary from 5 to 50 per cent of the amount applied whereas the phosphate losses are in the range 0.1 to 5 per cent. Fertilizers are costly and farmers should not waste them by applying too much or at the...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Instead of using these fertilizers, which can have a negative effect environmentally, other practices could be used instead, such as rotational grazing. In addition, if forage quality is improved, livestock methane emissions should be significantly reduced. Nitrous oxide emissions could be avoided by eliminating the need for fertilizer. The EPA stresses that finding the right sequestration practices will help lessen the negative effects of all the greenhouse gases.

Characteristics of a postpetroleum food and farming system localized and organic

To improve soil fertility, more land would be put to nitrogen-fixing crops, and human sewage recycled as fertilizer (Harnapp, 1988 Offerman and Nieberg, 2000 Fairlie, 2007). This in turn would necessitate cultural changes to reduce the meat content of diets. Given the biophysical limitations on the capacity to expand and specialize, the average size of land holding would decrease and farm numbers would increase (Campbell and Coombes, 1999). Farm labour would also generally increase, depending on the type of production system. For example, a temperate mixed farm which included on-farm processing and direct marketing would have labour increases of approximately 20 per cent (Offerman and Nieberg, 2000). These increases would require land reform they would be reversing the trend in industrialized countries, where, for example, the number of farms in the UK have fallen between the 1930s and the present, from 500,000 to 130,000, and 70 per cent of land is owned by...

Avoiding Exposure and the Use of Green Products

Indoor air quality should improve with increasing consumer preference for green products or low-emission products and building materials. Green products for household use include products that are used on a daily basis, such as laundry detergents, cleaning fluids, window cleaners, cosmetics, aerosol sprays, fertilizers, and pesticides. Generally, these products do not contain chemicals that cause environmental pollution problems, or have lesser quantities of them than their counterparts. Some chemicals have been totally eliminated from use in household products due to strict regulations. Examples include the ban of phosphate-based detergents and aerosols containing chlorofluorocarbons. A list of green products available in the United States and other countries is provided in an adjacent table. Materials like plaster boards, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, soldering glue, switches, and panel boards, which are known to cause indoor air quality problems, have been substituted with...

Direct Use of Solar Energy

One potential source of electricity is biomass, used as a fuel in a steam turbine plant. The main source of biomass now used in electricity generation is wastes, including wastes from the forest product industry. However, the amounts of such wastes are limited. A major increase in biomass use for electricity generation would require dedicated biomass plantations and adequate supplies of water and fertilizer. As estimated by David Hall and colleagues, the practical maximum yields of biomass in temperate climates corresponds to an annual average efficiency of about 1 for conversion from solar energy to chemical energy in the plants 9, p. 600 . The thermal efficiency for biomass combustion is unlikely to reach the 33 efficiency achieved for coal, and some of the plantation area must be used for nonproductive purposes such as roads. Thus, an optimistic estimate probably unrealistically optimistic of the area required for biomass production of electricity is 2000 km2 GWe. More typical...

An ineffective food system

Nonetheless, more ecologically based, organic production approaches are sidestepped by international development agencies and national ministries of agriculture owing to their reportedly low yield performance and, therefore, their apparent inability to meet global food needs or be appropriate in food insecure situations (IAC, 2003). In fact, early yield comparisons between certified organic and industrial agriculture has indicated a yield decline of approximately 20 per cent for organic production. However, these studies were based on the performance of certain market-oriented organic systems in temperate climatic regions. Whereas outputs of any one specific crop may be lower on an organic farm than an industrialized one, total farm yields are higher (Altieri et al, 1998). More recent studies show non-certified organic farming approaches to achieve significant yield increases over both traditional and industrial agriculture, and in particular in resource-poor regions on marginal lands...

Are high prices choking off demand for gas

The scope for gas consumers to reduce their consumption of gas in the face of high prices varies by region and by sector. Most residential consumers have little option but to pay the higher cost, as they rarely have any back up for space and water heating, and for cooking. Moreover, switching to an alternative fuel when installing new equipment may not be attractive since heating oil and electricity prices have also risen in most cases. But some gas-fired power plants and industrial boilers can be switched to other fuels at short notice (environmental regulations permitting), usually heavy fuel oil in the case of conventional steam boilers and distillate in the case of gas turbines. In addition, some utilities and manufacturers maintain back-up capacity that allows them to switch quickly to a cheaper fuel. Good statistics on the amount of such flexible capacity and the extent of switching in practice are rare outside the United States. The most recent survey of switching capacity in...

Significance of the Argument

Inevitably, this book leaves much of interest unsaid. Stories remain to be told about rice, maize, and other crops, and about soil scientists, irrigation specialists, fertilizer producers, mechanical engineers, and other scientists. Most importantly, the book is silent about the person who has to put all of the disparate pieces of knowledge into practice the farmer. Hundreds of millions of men, women, and children labor daily to produce the food that keeps the billions alive, including those who write books. Some are well rewarded for their work, but many are not. Farmers, however, whatever their status, work at the interface between humans and nature, which is fundamental to the survival and prospects of our own species and the many other species with whom we share the earth. Those of us who do not work at this interface are well advised at least to try to understand what is at stake.

International efforts

The US also produces ethanol, but uses corn instead of sugar cane to create the fuel. As a result, the manufacturing process is more complicated, expensive and demanding of fertilizer generated using fossil fuels. As a result, in order to make domestic ethanol competitive, the federal government imposes a 54-cent tariff on each gallon of Brazilian ethanol that is imported, hindering the widespread adoption of competitive Brazilian ethanol in the US.

The greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases let thr ough sunlight but tend to stop energy escaping into space when it has been changed to lower-frequency heat radiation. While water vapour is the main such gas, there are growing contributions from over thirty others, especially CO (carbon dioxide), nitrogen oxides, methane, fluorocarbons (CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs), and lower-atmosphere ozone. Humans produce over thirty billion tons of CO annually, two-thirds of it by burning fossil fuels at a rate which has increased fourfold since 1950 and over thirtyfold since 1900. But nitrogen oxides, generated by fertilizers or by burning of just about anything they are spewed out in huge amounts by automobiles and aircraft are now often thought to be almost equally important, while the fluorocarbons, many thousand times as effective as CO (molecule for molecule) and with atmospheric concentrations 2which will increase for many years, could become the strongest greenhouse gases apart from water vapour by about the year 2030....

Energy policy in China

Much of China's industrial infrastructure is obsolete, since most technologies prior to 1978 were imported from the Soviet Union. Moreover, efficiencies gained through economies of scale were absent, in part because of the Mass Movement political line laid down by the CCP before 1980, which promoted small, backyard enterprises such as blast furnaces, fertilizer plants and refineries (Lu 1993 25). A third factor is China's coal pricing policy. A key element of the centrally planned economy was low energy prices. With coal priced well below production costs, there was little need for energy consumers to think about conservation (Lenssen 1993 23-4).

Plant Breeding and Yields

Plant breeders were the key people in the yield transformation because they selected the plant varieties that were genetically able to produce higher yields. Individuals from other sciences were also involved, particularly soil scientists, fertilizer chemists, hydrologists and irrigation specialists, entomologists and plant pathologists, and statisticians. Nevertheless, it was the plant breeders who more than anyone else created the conditions for the yield transformation, and it is primarily their story that needs to be understood.

Traditional Agricultural Systems

Demands for an increase in food production were initially met by expanding the area being cultivated or horizontal expansion. The cropland area increased from 265 million hectares (Mha) prior to the Industrial Revolution in 1700 to 1,500 Mha in 1980, representing an increase of 5.7 times in less than three centuries. (One hectare equals 2.47 acres.) The scarcity of new land for crop production necessitated increasing crop production per unit area and time from the same land. This need for agricultural intensification, or vertical expansion, has been satisfied by the use of chemical fertilizers, supplemental irrigation, improved cultivars, and intensive cropping systems. With the wide availability of fertilizers since World War II, farms in North America and other developed economies have become larger, leading to the increased predominance of monoculture and the elimination of hay and meadows from the rotation cycle. Animal production operations have become specialized, based on...

Agriculture and the Environment

Inappropriate land use, soil mismanagement (especially the practice of plowing and growing monoculture with the subsequent need for large amounts of pesticides), and the adoption of fertility-mining practices can have adverse impacts on the environment, including the eutrophication of surface water, contamination of ground water, and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from agricultural ecosystems into the atmosphere. Processes that lead to environmental pollution include accelerated erosion, leaching, volatilization, mineralization of organic matter, methanogenesis, and denitrification. These processes are accentuated by the conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems, biomass burning, plowing and other excessive soil disturbance, indiscriminate use of fertilizers and other farm chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, and drainage of wetlands. Nonetheless, these activities were deemed necessary to increase agricultural productivity to meet the demands of an increased...