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a access roads, 105-106 acute weather events, 4-5 adfreezing, 145-147, 147, 148, 202 agricultural areas, 52 Agriculture, Department of, 115 air circulation, 86 air conditioning systems moisture flow and, 19, 21 operating range of, 101 variable systems, 137 wall moisture levels and, 131-132 airtight insulation contact (ATIC)

rated lights, 153 Alabama, 110 Alaska expansive clay soils, 110

moisture flow, 21

permafrost, 119, 121

risk of extreme weather events, 3

sea level rise, 124

Alberta, 172

All-Hazards Civil Alert, 54

Allstate Corporation, 204

the Alps, 120

aluminum roofs, 104

American Red Cross, 64, 80, 83, 162

American Society of Civil

Engineers, 4 Amsterdam, 126 anchors, 44, 47, 186 animals, 79

anvil to ground lightning, 65 appliances, 65, 87 Arctic, 124

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

(ACIA), 123-124 Aristotle, 89 Arkansas, 110

Army Corp of Engineers, 57, 127 asbestos, 201

asphalt shingle roofing materials, 100 Association for Fire Ecology, 103 ASTM E-108 ratings, 104 Atlanta, Georgia, 36

Atlantic Gulf Stream, 27, 35 attics humidity levels, 193-194 ice dams, 150, 150-151, 153-154 prevention of frozen plumbing, 159

trapped moisture in, 129, 137-138 ventilation, 100

b backflow prevention valves, 87, 201 Bacon, Francis, 93 bacteria, 77, 78, 80 Baja California, 40, 209 Baker, Russell, 99 Baker-LaPorte, Paula, 182 balconies, 105

Base Flood Elevation (BFE), 87, 126, 166 baseboards, 22

basement foundations, 174-176 basements dampness, 175 drainage, 170

heating for freeze/thaw conditions, 144-145, 146 pumping out water, 81-82 radon, 168, 175 bathroom cabinets, 160 bathroom fans, 135 Baubiologie, xv Bay Area Retrofit, 187-188 Beecher, Henry Ward, 75 Bentley, Molly, 121 Bernoulli effect, 43 Berry, M., 77

BFE (Base Flood Elevation), 87, 126, 166 biocides, 77-78, 80-81 bioremediation of pathogens, 78 black water, 76 blackouts, 101 bleach, 77-78, 80-81 Blower Door test, 153 bolts, 188

boroscopes, 45, 45, 133

Brazil, 40

brick walls, 104

brick siding, 104

Britt, Robert Roy, 120

Builders Guides (Lstiburek), 176

Building and Fire Research

Laboratory, 182 Building Biology (Baubiologie), xv building codes, 6, 22, 119, 156, 187 building materials, moisture capacity of, 96, 129 building sites, 165-168 permafrost considerations, 121-122

risks associated with, 165-166 wildfire protection, 105 buildings causes of deficiencies in, 3 effect of extreme weather conditions, 25

effect of heat, 90-91 energy efficient, 16-18 functions of, 13-14 identifying construction used, 133 maintenance timeframe, 5 moisture tolerance of, 130-131, 137

planning for flexibility, 26, 180 structural soundness of, 11-18 understanding moisture flow, 138 Burch, Douglas M., 185 Burke, Edmund, 129

c cabinet doors, 136, 160 cable service, 67 California, 104, 110, 156 Camp, Phil, 4 Canada climate change risks, 2 expansive clay soils, 110-111 incidence of tornados, 52 moisture flow, 21 permafrost in, 121 precipitation changes, 30 routine freezing in, 141 vapor barrier use, 131 Canadian Centre for Climate

Modeling and Analysis, 130 Canadian Permafrost Monitoring

Network, 120, 121 capillary action, 169 carbon dioxide emissions, 1, 207-208 carports, 145 catastrophic events, 6 ceilings, 112

cellars, 146, 174 cellulose building materials, 77 cement block siding, 104 Chan, Gilbert, 204 Charley (hurricane), 56, 208 Chekhov, 49 chemicals, 79, 113-114 chimneys, 104-105, 142 chlorine bleach, 77-78, 80-81 chronic weather events, 4-5 circuit breakers, 68-69 cities, 90-91 Ciudad Acuna, 52 clean water intrusion after hail storms, 73-74 cleanup of, 77

from freezing conditions, 141-142 ice damming as, 153 sources of, 76 Clemson University, 42, 193 climate change, 25-36 acute and chronic events, 4-5 adjusting to, 2-3

impact on natural environment, 1 incidence of desertification, 95-96 incidence of earthquakes, 161-162 incidence of expansive clay soil damage, 109-110 incidence of flooding, 75-76 incidence of hail, 72 incidence of heat waves, 99 incidence of rising temperatures, 89-90

incidence of thunderstorms, 64 incidence of wildfires, 103 incidence of wind storms, 40 increased depth of permafrost thawing, 119-120 as increased temperature only, 131

inevitability of, 207-208 response to, 209-210 sea level rise, 123-126 temperature fluctuations, 132, 142, 156

temperatures extremes and condensation, 130-132 volcanic activity and, 162 weather variability, 25 climate zones, 3, 20, 21, 185 Clorox Clean-up, 81 closet doors, 136 coastal areas, habitability of, 165 Colorado, 110 Columbia University, 162 committed warming, 208 community plans, 127 community resources, 6 composite materials, 15 Comprehensive Liability Underwriters Exchange (CLUE), 203

computer moisture simulation models, 133-134, 138 CompuWeather, 99 concrete blocks, 87 concrete slab foundation, 17, 172 construction felt, 186-187 construction techniques, 3, 129 contaminant insurance exclusion, 201-202 contaminated water cleanup of, 76-79, 81 damage to submersible pumps, 66-67, 69

insurance coverage, 200, 201 storm surges, 85 Cook, Howard, 187-188 corrugated roofs, 89

craftsmen, 14 Crane, Stephen, 107 crawlspace ventilation, 104 crawlspaces, 129, 170, 173-174

Death Valley, 3, 36 decks, 105

dehumidifiers, 86, 97, 135, 136 DensArmor Plus, 84, 87, 185 Department of Agriculture, 115 Department of Energy, 99 Department of Homeland Security, 204

Department of Housing and Urban

Development, 182 desert regions, 23 desertification, 93-97 areas at risk, 94

basement moisture problems, 175 cause of, 93 effect of, 96

expansive clay soils and, 4, 112, 117

insurance coverage, 202 intense rainfall and, 34 protection against, 97 dew point, 31, 93 dikes, 57, 126

disaster relief programs, 204-205 Disraeli, Benjamin, 103 doors, 45, 87, 112 Doppler radar, 73, 74 drain plane, 186-187 drainage building site choice, 166 of exterior walls, 185-187 for foundations, 173, 174-175, 176-178

for hurricane protection, 60 to protect from adfreezing, 145-146, 148 radon reduction and, 167 for wind storm protection, 46 drainage plane, 15 drains, maintenance of, 23 draperies, 136 drip-watering systems, 116 driveways, 92, 105-106, 122 drought, 93-97 basement moisture problems, 175

in Canada, 2 cause of, 93

expansive clay soils and, 4, 110, 112, 117

insurance coverage, 202 in Mexico, 4 monitoring maps, 95 protection against, 97 dryers, 87, 153 Duct Blaster test, 153 ductwork, 150, 151, 153

E. coli, 76, 77, 78 earth movement insurance exclusions, 202 earthquakes, 161-162, 187-188,

198, 202 Easterling, William E., 27 eave vents, 104, 151 EcoNest, 180, 181 EcoNest: Creating Sustainable Sanctuaries of Clay, Straw, and Timber (Baker-LaPorte), 182 efflorescence, 169, 176-177 Eiffel Tower, 63

Ekström, Göran, 161-162 elastomeric coatings, 23, 134, 136 electrical heat tape, 158-159, 160 electrical power outlets, 22 electrical system, 67, 68-69, 79, 87 electrical transformers, 65, 69 elevated structures, 88 Energy, Department of, 99 energy efficient buildings, 16-18 Engineered Wood Association, 60 England, 14-15, 15, 141, 171 Entamoeba histolytica, 78 enteric viruses, 78 Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 80, 125-126, 167, 168 evaporative cooling, 95-96, 101 Everglades, 126 expansive clay soils, 107-117 areas at risk, 109, 110 in Canada, 2 composition of, 108 determining risk, 115 effects of, 4-5, 34 foundations, 172 incidence of flooding and, 75, 76 indications of, 112 insurance coverage, 202 prevention of damage, 113 process of, 107 protection against, 115-117 radon levels, 167-168 restoring moisture content, 114-115 exterior siding, 104 exterior walls, 160, 185-187 extreme weather, 28, 34-35, 36, 209

Fairbanks, Alaska, 120 Farm Service Agency (FSA), 205

fascia vents, 104 fasteners, 44, 46, 186, 193 Feachem, R.G., 78 Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) chlorine bleach, 80 earthquakes, 162 expansive clay soils, 108, 112 flooding, 83, 87, 198, 200, 204-205 felt material, 186-187 fences, 105

fiberglass rebar, 171, 172 Field, William O., 36 firefighting equipment, 106 fireplaces, 105 fires. See wildfires firewood, 105

203-204 flash flooding, 4, 33 flat roofs, 144 flooding, 75-88 in Canada, 2 categories of water, 76 community resources following, 6 contamination of water, 77-79 drying the building, 79-80 insurance coverage, 198, 200, 202-203

protection against, 83, 87-88, 125 pumping out water, 81-83 recovery from, 83-84 risk of, 197 sources of, 75 floors, 44, 46, 96-97, 112 Florida climate zone, 3 freezing weather insurance claims, 35 moisture flow, 21 sea level rise, 124, 126 temperature fluctuations, 132, 156 Florida Keys, 84-87 footings, 119, 144, 173-174 foundation, 169-178 adfreezing protection, 146, 147, 148

anchors, 45, 47, 87, 187-188 drainage, 170

expansive clay soil damage, 108, 110, 112-113

expansive clay soil protection, 113, 114-115, 116 fasteners, 44, 46 freeze/thaw conditions, 144-147 frozen plumbing prevention, 160 in permafrost, 119, 120, 122 pumps, 177-178 rebar, 171, 172 types of, 172-176 water passage through, 19, 169 framing. See wood frame construction Francis (hurricane), 56, 208 Franklin, Benjamin, 1, 35, 67, 161 freezing adfreezing, 145-147, 147, 148, 202 incidence of flooding and, 75, 76 protection against, 147-148 roof snow clearing, 143-144 See also frozen plumbing fresh water, 123 frost, 93

frozen plumbing, 155-160 building for, 35 cause of, 155-156 defrosting, 158, 158-159

prevention, 157-158, 159-160 Fu, Qiang, 89 fuel spills, 201 fuel tanks, 105

Fujita Tornado Damage Scale, 50, 51 furnace systems, 87, 151, 153 furnishings, 96

g gable roofs, 42, 47, 142, 194 garage doors, 45, 47 garages, 45, 47, 53, 145 garden contamination, 78-79 garden hoses, 160 Gastonbury Abbey, 171 generators, 101, 106 Georgia Pacific, 84, 87, 185 Gerrold, David, 119 Giardia lamblia, 78 Gibson, William, 71 glacial earthquakes, 162 glaciers, 36, 124-125, 161-162 glass, 104 Glenn, John, 155 global warming. See climate change Goddard Institute for Space

Studies, 99 Gore, Al, 126

government programs, 6, 198,

204-205 gray water, 76 greenboard, 84 greenhouse gases committed warming, 207-208 effects of, 1, 26-27 hurricane formation and, 56 natural production of, 26 Greenland, 123-124, 126

ground fault, 67-69

Ground Fault Interrupter Circuit

(GFIC) breakers, 68-69 ground fires, 64 groundwater, 82-83, 115, 170 Gulf of Mexico, 39, 41, 55 Gulf Stream, 27, 35 gutters, 23, 105, 116 gypsum wallboard in flooding, 77, 79-80 against masonry with efflorescence, 176

moisture and, 13, 18, 21-22 mold remediation, 81 paperless, 84, 87, 185 storm surge-damaged, 86

H-clip fasteners, 192, 192-193, 193 Hadley Centre, 35, 131 hail, 71-74 in Canada, 2

damage caused by, 73-74 formation of, 71-72 protection against, 74 warning systems, 73 Hamilton, J.J., 111 Hansen, James, 28, 99 Harlen Metal Products, 188 Harvard University, 161 Hawaii, 3, 110, 111 Hazardous Weather Outlook notifications, 41 heat, effect of, 89-91 heat lamps, 160 heat strips, 152 heat waves, 99-101 effect of, 99

insurance coverage, 202

in Mexico, 4 protection against, 101 protective effect of plants, 100 See also rising temperatures heating systems, 154 heat-island effect, 90-91 heavy metals, 79 Hepatitis A virus, 78 hip roofs, 42, 47, 142 Holmes, Bob, 208 home builders, 14 Home Depot, 84 home insurance. See insurance coverage

Homeland Security, Department of, 204

homes. See buildings hot water heaters, 154

house dust, 77

houses. See buildings

Housing and Urban Development,

Department of, 182 Howard, South Dakota, 49 Hudson River, 75 humidifiers, 97 humidity air fronts and, 41 fluctuations in, 96-97 moisture condensation, 131-132 mold and water damage, 5 protection against fluctuations, 97 protective coatings and, 23-24 soil moisture and, 93, 95 temperature increase and, 29, 31-32, 32 hurricane Charley, 56, 208 hurricane Francis, 56, 208 hurricane Ivan, 56, 208 hurricane John, 40, 55, 209

hurricane Katrina, 25, 56-57, 57,

127, 200, 208-209 hurricane Wilma, 84-87 hurricanes, 55-61 community resources following, 6 direct hits, 60

flood damage and, 75, 84-85 formation of, 55-56 incidence of, 39, 56, 208-209 in Mexico, 4, 52 monitoring of, 40-41 naming of, 56

projected inland penetration, 56, 57

protection against, 57-58, 60 temperature increase and, 33 warning systems, 58, 61 Huxley, Thomas, 11 hydrostatic pressure, 174-176

i ice, 123-126, 141-142 ice age, 34-35 ice damming, 149-154 cause of, 149, 149 cleanup of, 77 climate change and, 2, 75 conditions leading to, 150-151 prevention of, 151-152, 153 water damage from, 153 ice lenses, 145 icebergs, 173

IICRC (Institute for Inspection Cleaning Restoration Certification), 76, 77, 83 Illinois, 110, 130, 131 An Inconvenient Truth, 126 insects, 79

inspections, 45, 133, 134, 135, 138

Institute for Business and Home

Safety (IBHS), 104, 106 Institute for Climate Science, 100 Institute for Inspection Cleaning Restoration Certification (IICRC), 76, 77, 83 insulation of foundation perimeter, 146, 147, 148

frozen plumbing prevention, 159 ice dams and, 149-150, 152, 153 on roofs, 194

trapped moisture and, 135 water damaged, 86 insurance coverage, 197-205 "all perils", 198-201 contaminant exclusions, 201-202

earth movement exclusions, 202 flood exclusions, 202-203 freezing weather insurance claims, 35

hail protection discount, 74 in hurricane-prone areas, 61 lightning protection discount, 63, 69

limitations of, 6, 197-198 loss history, 203 Insurance Newsnet, 204 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. See IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) intracloud lightning, 63 Iowa, 49, 110

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2007 Summary for Policymakers adaptation, 27, 207, 208, 209

adaptive capacity, 132, 166 carbon uptake, 25"costs of extreme weather events, 199, 201, 205 drought, 93

effect of climate change, 1, 26 fire risk, 104 flooding, 82

frequency of extreme weather events, 33

heat waves, 101

impact of extreme weather events, 40, 60

impact on coastal areas, 61

impacts on Arctic, 120, 121

increased precipitation, 76

Meridional Overturning

Circulation, 31

sustainable development, 210 unmitigated climate change, 111 vulnerability of communities, 198

water availability, 29 iron rebar, 171, 172 irrigation, 105, 106 Ivan (hurricane), 56, 208

Jacobson, Larry, 143 Jakobsen, Tore, 42 John (hurricane), 40, 55, 209 Jones, D.E., 113

Kansas, 49, 72, 110 Katrina (hurricane), 25, 56-57, 57, 84-87, 127, 200, 208-209

Keller, Charles, 36 Kentucky, 110 Key West, 85 Kirkpatrick, J.S., 91 Kirkwhelpington, England, 14-15, 15

kitchen cabinets, 160 Kithil, Richard, 64

l landscaping, 46, 91, 101, 105, 106 LaPorte, Robert, 182 Larsen, Janet, 99 lath and plaster, 18 lawn ornaments, 46 Lawrence Berkeley National

Laboratory, 91 levees incidence of flooding and, 75 investment in, 165 protection provided by, 25, 57, 126, 127 light fixtures, 135, 150, 151, 153 lightning, 63-69

annual costs of strikes, 64 in Canada, 2 cause of, 63

protection against, 64-69 Lightning Protection Institute, 66 lightning rods Eiffel Tower as, 63 home protection system, 67, 69 for trees, 66, 67, 69 load-bearing wall fasteners, 44, 46 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 36

Louisiana, 25, 110 Lstiburek, Joe, 12-13, 16-17, 133, 135, 176, 194

Madison, Wisconsin, 183-184 maintenance, 3, 5, 23-24 Manitoba, 172

manufactured homes, 182-185 Manufactured Housing Walls That Provide Satisfactory Moisture Performance in All Climates (Burch), 182-185 Marx, Groucho, 123 masonry structures, 14-15, 15,

16-17, 180 master builders, 14 mechanical drying, 86 mechanical interventions, 25-26 Meehl, Gerald, 99 Met Office, 131

metal frame construction, 16-17,

131 Mexico climate change risks, 4 incidence of hurricanes, 40, 55 incidence of tornados, 52 precipitation changes, 30 Mexico City, 4 Miami, Florida, 19, 184-185 Minnesota, 35, 110 Mississippi, 25, 110 Missouri, 110

mixed-climate zones, 21, 132 moisture capacity to absorb, 12-13, 16-17, 130-131 in energy efficient buildings, 16-18

flow, 19-23

lifestyle changes to reduce, 194 in masonry structures, 14-15 monitoring, 97, 134, 135, 138

moisture, trapped, 129-139 insurance coverage, 202 long-term measures, 136-137 monitoring, 138-139 temporary measures to control, 135-136

moisture barriers. See vapor barriers Moisture Control Handbook

(Lstiburek), 176 moisture simulation models,

133-134, 138 mold after flooding, 77, 79-80 after hail damage, 73 as chronic condition, 5 in energy efficient buildings, 16 gypsum wallboard and, 13, 21, 84

with ice damming, 153 insurance coverage, 201 moisture capacity and, 16 moisture flow and, 129 with plaster, 18 remediation, 80-81 wood moisture content and, 12 Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings (USEPA), 80

Molnia, Bruce, 36

monsoon seasons, 23

Montana, 110

montmorillonite, 108

Montreal, 134

Mount McKinley, 3

mudsill fasteners, 44, 45, 46, 179,

188, 189 Mudsill Plate, 188 Muir, John, 39 Muir Glacier, 36

n nail holes, 187 NASA, 40, 90-91, 99, 125 National Academy of Sciences, 34 National Aeronautic Space

Administration, 28 National Center for Atmospheric

Research, 99 National Fire Protection

Association, 64, 66 National Institute of Standards and

Technology, 182 National Lightning Safety Institute, 64

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 41, 49, 52, 95, 207 National Recreation Association, 66 National Research Council of

Canada, 111, 145 National Weather Service, 73 natural environment, 1 Natural Resources Conservation

Service, 115 Nebraska, 49, 72, 110 Netherlands, 126 Nettles, Meredith, 161 Nevada, 110 New Mexico, 110 New Orleans, 56-57, 200 New Scientist, 207 New York City, 90 North Dakota, 110, 209 North Pole, 123

Oakridge National Laboratory,

133-134 oceans. See sea level rise

Ohio, 49, 110 Oklahoma, 72, 110 Olive. W.W., 111 Oregon, 110

OSB (oriented strand board), 13,

15, 136 osmotic action, 169 overhangs, 105 ozone depletion, 56

Pacific Ocean, 27, 39 paint, 90, 179, 201 painted roofs, 89 Panama Canal, 27 paper, 13, 18

paperless gypsum board, 84, 87, 185

Parallel Climate Model, 99 parasites, 76, 80 parge finishes, 87, 177 particle board, 13, 15 Pasteur, Louis, 149 PATH Builders Association, 194 patio doors, 45, 104 paving materials, 90, 92 PCBs, 65, 66-67, 69 peel and stick waterproof membranes, 187, 192 Penner, E., 145-146 perforated drainage pipe, 173 perimeter foundations, 113 permafrost, 119-122 construction over, 119 insurance coverage, 202 melting of, 2

prevention of thawing, 120-121 protection against damage from thawing, 121-122

perspiration, 95-96 Pew Center, 27 Philadelphia, 134 picture frames, 137 piers, 88, 125, 126 pipes. See plumbing Planck, Max, 25 plants humidity fluctuation protection, 97 temperature increase protection, 91, 100, 101

wildfire protection, 105 plaster, 18, 177 plaster siding, 104 Pliny, 141 plumbing after flooding, 79 backflow prevention valves, 87 expansive clay soil damage, 108 frozen, 35, 141-142, 155, 155-160 grounding, 65 pipe bursting, 75-76 water penetration and, 187 plywood breathability of, 136 in manufactured home wall study, 183-185, 184 moisture and, 12 on roofs, 192, 192-193 polar ice, 27, 123 pollution insurance exclusion, 201-202 pooled water, 170 pools, 81-82, 116 post and beam buildings, 113 post-tension foundation system,

113, 116 potable water, 76

power poles, 64-65 power transformers, 65, 69 precipitation, changes in, 30

See also rainfall; snow prefabricated homes, 182-185 Prescott, Arizona, 64-65 Prescriptions for a Healthy House

(Baker-LaPorte), 182 pumps importance of drainage, 175, 177-178

pumping out flood water, 81-83,

sea level rise protection, 126 "Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country" (US Geological Survey), 162

Queretaro, 4 r radon, 16, 166-168, 175 rafter baffle, 152 rafter fasteners, 44, 46 rainfall incidence of flooding and, 75 increase in, 32 soil hydration and, 110, 115 raised foundations, 173-174 rebar, 171, 172 Red Cross, 64, 80, 83, 162 Redford, Robert, 207 remodeling practices, 3, 5, 24 repairs, timeframe for, 5 Reynolds, K. A., 81 rising temperatures, 89-92 effect of, 90-91, 103

protection against, 91-92 See also heat waves roads, 108, 122 Robinson, D.M., 112 roof crickets, 142 roof underlayments for hail protection, 73 for hurricane protection, 60 ice dam prevention, 154 for tornado protection, 53 trapped moisture and, 136 roofing materials effect of heat on, 90, 100 hail-resistant, 72-73, 74 ice formation on, 142 midday temperatures of, 89 ratings, 104

rising temperature protection, 91 sheathing and water damage, 193 for tornado protection, 53 for wildfire protection, 104 for wind storm protection, 43, 47 roofs, 191-194

condensation in, 136

framing, 193

function of, 191

ice damming, 149-154

the ideal roof, 191-194

insulated, 194

load capacity, 143, 147-148

slope grades, 142, 147

snow, 142, 143-144

temperature of, 89

tornado damage, 53

trapped moisture in, 137-138

uplift, 42-45

watertightness of, 19

wildfire protection, 105

for wind storm protection, 46-47

Rose, William B., 35, 155-156 Roseburg Forest Products, 185 Rosenzweig, C., 90, 91 rot, 12

Rotavirus, 78 runoff, 33

S500 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Water Damage Restoration (IICRC), 76 Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale,

58-59 Salmonella, 76, 77, 78 salt water, 123 San Francisco Bay, 187-188 sandbags, 126 Santa Fe, New Mexico, 110 Saskatchewan, 172 Schneider, Anton, xv, 11 Science, 56, 89, 161 sea level rise, 123-127 in Canada, 2 cause of, 123-125 insurance coverage, 203 protection against, 126-127 sea-ice retreat, 121 sealants, 175-177, 179 Seneviratne, Sonia, 100 septic systems, 77-78, 81, 82 sewage, 76-78, 87, 201-202 sheet iron roofs, 104 shelters, 53, 60 Shigella, 76, 77, 78 shingles, 43 shutters fire-resistant, 104 for hail protection, 73, 74 for hurricane protection, 60

for wind storm protection, 45, 47 sidewalks, 92 siding, 104

sill plate fasteners, 43, 44, 45, 46,

179, 188, 189 skylights, 104

slab foundations, 112, 113, 158,

169-170,172-173 slate roofs, 104 sliding doors, 45, 104 slope grades, 116 slow fire, 5

Small Business Administration

(SBA), 204-205 snakes, 79 snow clearing roofs, 143-144 damage caused by, 141-142 effect on wildfires, 103 ice dam prevention, 152 roof slopes for, 142 soil moisture and, 93 snow roof rakes, 143-144 soaker hoses, 115, 116 soffit dams, 152 soffit vents, 104 soil building site choice, 166 contamination of, 78-79 effect of increased temperatures, 33-34

fire risk and, 103 frozen water in, 173 insurance coverage for removal, 201

likelihood of freezing, 145 moisture levels of, 93, 100 radon in, 166 sewage bioremediation, 78

See also expansive clay soils solar reflectance, 89 Solomon, Susan, 207 South Atlantic, 40 South Dakota, 110 spalling, 176-177 spas, 81-82

sprinkler systems, 106, 160 stack effect, 16

State Farm insurance company, 204 stone masonry structures, 14-15,

15, 16-17, 180 stone roofs, 104 stone siding, 104 storage tanks, 87 storm surges, 85-86 strapping, 43-45 Straub, T., 77

straw-clay construction, 180, 180, 182

stucco siding, 104 stud fasteners, 44 submersible water pumps, 66-67, 69

sump pumps, 87, 175, 177-178 support piers, 120, 122 surface fires, 64 surge protection, 65, 67, 69 swimming pools, 81-82, 116 Sydney, Australia, 29

T1-11 siding, 185 tar and gravel roofs, 89 Taylor, Gene, 55 Tebaldi, Claudia, 99 telephones, 67

temperature and humidity gauges, 97, 134

temperatures committed warming, 208 condensation increases, 29,

differences in atmosphere, 36 dry soil conditions and, 33-34 extreme fluctuations, 142 freezing conditions, 156 global rise, 28 in Mexico, 4

moisture flow and, 19-23 mold and water damage, 5 records, 209

water vapor increases, 29 weather event intensity and,

32-33

See also heat waves; rising temperatures Tennessee, 21, 110 Texas, 35, 49, 72, 110 thatched roofs, 141 thermal emittance, 89 thermal imaging cameras, 134, 151,

151-152, 153 Thomas, Neil, 120 thunderstorms hail development and, 71-72 hurricane development and, 55 lightning and, 63, 64 recent activity, 209 temperature increase and, 33 tornado development and, 49, 52 as warning for events, 41 wind damage, 42 tie clips, 186

ties for continuous load path, 44 tile roofs, 89, 104 timber framing, 180 top plate fasteners, 44

Tornado Alley, 39, 49 tornados, 49-54 in Canada, 2 direction of travel, 53 formation of, 49, 52 F-scale damage, 51 incidence of, 39 incidence of flooding and, 75 monitoring of, 41, 53-54 protection against, 52-53 temperature increase and, 33 wind damage, 42 tornado-safe rooms, 53 Torres, Brazil, 40 transformers, 65, 69 trees cooling effect of, 100 expansive clay soils and, 108, 112, 116-117

lightning strike protection, 66,

moisture and, 12 rising temperature protection, 91 wildfire protection, 105 wind protection, 143 tropical storm John, 40 tropical storms, 56 tropical zone, 89, 130 tropopause, 56 Tsai, Victor C., 161 tsunamis, 161, 162 Tyler, Willie, 63

UL 790 ratings, 104 Underwriters' Laboratories, 66,

72-73, 74 unheated buildings, 145 Uniform Building Code (UBC), 188

United Facilities Criterion, 111 United States Atlantic coast, hurricanes, 39, 56 climate change risks, 3 coastal population, 126 effect of heat waves, 99 expansive clay soils in, 172 Gulf Coast, hurricane Katrina damage, 56-57

Gulf Coast, projected inland penetration of hurricanes, 57 incidence of tornados, 49, 52 moisture flow, 22-23 northern states, increased temperature and vapor barriers, 131 northern states, routine freezing in, 141

precipitation changes, 30 rainfall, 96

southern states, humidity levels, 41

western states, wildfires, 104 US Climate Action Report, 125-126 USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 80, 125-126, 167, 168 United States Geological Survey earthquakes, 162, 205 expansive clay soils, 110, 111, 115 glaciers, 36 permafrost, 120, 121 United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 34, 121, 122 University of Alaska, 155 University of Minnesota, 143 upkeep, 3, 5, 23-24 uranium, 166

urban heat-island effect, 90, 90-91 Utah, 110

v vapor barriers, 19-23 decorative elements as, 136 on foundation, 170 incorrect use of, 179 increased temperature and humidity, 130-132 installation of, 19 in mixed-climate zones, 22 variable permeability, 132-133 See also vinyl wallpaper variable-permeance-claddings walls, 183-185 ventilation baffles, 153 ventilation systems, 97 vents, 43, 60, 104, 151 vinyl siding, 104 vinyl wallpaper moisture flow and, 21-22, 23-24, 136-137

using computer simulation, 134 as vapor barrier, 129, 179 viruses, 76, 78, 80 volcanos, 111, 161, 162

w wall cavities air leakage, 135

ice dam water damage, 149-150 trapped moisture in, 129, 132 wall outlets, 187 wallpaper. See vinyl wallpaper walls, 179-189 anchor bolts, 187-188, 189 fasteners, 44, 46 function of, 179 the ideal wall, 180-185 manufactured homes study, 182-185

moisture balance and, 18-19 watertightness of, 19 washers, 188, 189 washing machines, 87 Washington, 110 water categories of in floods, 76 drainage plane, 15 frozen, 173

passage through foundation, 169 pooled in basement, 170 sources of, 17 water damage after hail storms, 73-74 as chronic condition, 5 with hurricanes, 57-58 from ice damming, 153 roof sheathing and, 193 with tornados, 53 See also clean water intrusion; contaminated water water fountains, 97 water heaters, 87 Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold (Rose), 35, 155 water meters, 158 water monitors, 160 water supply, 157 water supply lines, 156, 158 water tables, 111, 115 water vapor capacity to absorb, 16-17 entry points, 22

radon repairs and, 168 storm intensity and, 32-33 through foundation, 169, 170 waterproof membranes, 187 Weather Alert Radios, 73, 74 weather cycles and resilience of homes, 2 The Weather Makers (Flannery),

41, 56, 96, 203-204 weep screed, 187 wells, 66-67, 69 West Antarctic ice sheet, 126 Westerling, A.L., 103 "wet" rooms, 68 wildfires, 103-106

change in behavior, 103 destruction by, 104 lightning-related, 64 in Mexico, 4

protection against, 104-105 risk of, 197

temperature increase and, 34 wind storms, 39-47 in Canada, 2 damage to buildings, 41 distinguishing characteristics, 42 garages, 45

house strapping, 43-45 incidence of flooding and, 75 projectiles, 46 roof design, 42-43 windows expansive clay soil damage, 112 flood shields, 87

in hurricanes, 60 moisture condensation, 135-136 open to neutralize wind storm pressure, 43, 53 wildfire protection, 104 See also shutters Winter, Steven, 66 winterizing plumbing, 159 Wisconsin, 110 wood, 12, 96 wood floors, 96-97 wood frame construction expansive clay soil damage, 108 fasteners, 44, 46 moisture and, 12 mold remediation, 81 water capacity, 16-17 water damage, 86 wood lath, 18 wood stove pipes, 104-105 World Bank, 78

WUFI computer moisture simulation, 133-134, 138 Wyoming, 110 Wyss, David, 208

Yersinia, 78 z

Zarling, John, 155 Zhizhong, Sun, 121 Ziehe, Helmut, xv

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