Professional Excel Templates
Association (AWWA) and published in 2000. By compiling a water audit using the standardized IWA AWWA methodology, water utility auditors gain an understanding of the nature and extent of their system water loss volumes and, via the validation process, allows the utility to calculate the mathematical confidence in those annual volumes. Good management of any resource requires that the supplier maintains accurate records of transactions and deliveries of the commodity provided to its customers. A water audit has exactly that goal, tracking and accounting for every component of water in the cycle of delivery. The water audit typically tracks and validates the volumes of water from the site of withdrawal or treatment, through the water distribution system up to the first point of customer consumption. The water audit usually exists in the form of a worksheet or spreadsheet that details the variety of consumption and losses that exist in a water system. The water balance itself is a...
There are many different skills required to use data-loggers and spreadsheets effectively using graph-drawing packages within spreadsheets and data-logger packages to support the analysis of results from experiments. There are a number of activities that can be chosen (e.g. calculation of speed and production of speed-time graphs production of rates of reaction graphs for chemistry). The example given in Figure 11.5 was created by asking pupils to enter planetary data into a spreadsheet and then generate graphs showing the relationship between the order of the planets from the sun ( -axis) and their temperature, or time to orbit (y-axis). Getting to Grips with Graphs was the first publication from the AKSIS Project (ASE and King's College Science Investigations in Schools). This book and compact disc pack aims to teach Key Stage 2 and 3 pupils about graphs (Goldsworthy et al. 1999). Their research suggests that pupils do not pick up how to construct and use FIGURE 11.5 Production of...
Often when measuring devices are tested there is a small margin of error. It is not always possible to recalibrate the flow meter before measuring in the field although that option is preferable. If the flow-measuring device cannot be recalibrated mechanically or electronically then it is still possible to use the data however the data must be calibrated theoretically using a spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will be constructed using the calibration curves from the meter tests prior to data collection and will show errors for brackets of flow. The data will then be imported into the form or spreadsheet, and automatically be changed by the error attributed to that flow range. The resultant data is closer to the truth than the original. Obviously there are some cases where error will still occur, especially in the case of a particularly sensitive or unstable measurement device.
Most document creation programs allow you to alter the format of the document for printing, which potentially can save paper. For example, Microsoft Excel has a Fit to Page feature that allows you to print a large spreadsheet to a single page. Microsoft Word allows you to print multiple pages of a document on each sheet of paper, which can be used for printing drafts if need. Of course, the ultimate saving of paper comes when all editing and sharing of documents is done electronically.
To estimate the amount of energy used for a company's IT operations, you will need a spreadsheet to crunch the numbers and an accurate count of the equipment in use. There are two significant types of equipment to count. Data center equipment is all of the equipment in the data center, including servers, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), storage area networks, and so on. Whereas the equipment in the data center is all in one place and easy to count, desktop machines are different. They are more mobile, and the models vary more widely.
Analysis of components of consumption forms an important part of any loss reduction or conservation program. The following model is a simple model made in a spreadsheet to predict industrial restroom usage for industries with many employees. This type of model may be used to see the potential benefit of toilet changeout for water conservation or it may be used to predict the amount of water used for sanitary purposes so that it may be broken out of a measured flow profile.
As an example of the signal content of a sea level record, consider the monthly mean water levels in Fig. 3.2. These data from the tide gauge site at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, were obtained from the PSMSL Web site. The PSMSL provides monthly mean data in columnar format, making it very easy to analyze the data with a spreadsheet program. The Scripps gauge, operated and maintained as a part of the National Water Level Network by the National Ocean Service (NOS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is an RLR site that has been in operation since 1925. It is located at the end of a long research pier facing the open ocean, and provides an excellent record of sea levels.
The first step is to collect the required data and prepare them in a spreadsheet format with various columns representing the input and output parameters. If a large number of sequences or patterns are available in the input data file, to avoid a long training time, a smaller training file may be created, containing as much as possible representative samples of the whole problem domain, in order to select the required parameters and to use the complete data set for the final training.
Some investigations require calculations from data. These often involve the use of calculators or spreadsheets. We must get pupils to estimate the result, preferably in their heads, rather than rushing to punch figures into a calculator following some poorly understood equation. The result may have little meaning to the pupils. 'Have I got the right answer ' they might say, but when you examine their 'answer' it is quoted to six decimal places Rounding off so that the result lies within experimental accuracy is much easier after they have estimated what it might be - don't let them quote meaningless insignificant figures.
The first step in the disposal process is to identify what is surplus to the organization. Often, this equipment has a lot of useful life remaining, but it must be matched to tasks that need its level of capability. Several years back, when personal computers were considerably more expensive than they are today, many desktop PCs were hand-me-down devices. The most powerful machines went to the front office executives and to the company engineers (who needed the processing capabilities). After several years, these machines were replaced with the latest models and the older machines were moved to the desk of the office staff, where they were used primarily for e-mail, word processing, spreadsheets, and similar functions. Eventually, these desktop machines were moved to the loading dock to support barcode readers that checked in new shipments. The goal was to maximize this expensive asset.
Of this haste is that it is a thicket of vaguely connected analyses and reports on the many facets of the economics and science of global warming. Readers will find it difficult to understand or reproduce the line of reasoning that goes from background trends (such as population and technology growth) through emissions and impacts to the finding about the 20 percent cut in consumption, now and forever. The background programs and spreadsheets that underlie the analysis in the Stern Review were not published so that analysts could reproduce their results.
In this chapter I ask whether any ecosystem product or service that does not now trade between willing buyers and sellers could do so - that is, if it could receive a competitive market price - if property rights were established or some impediment to exchange were removed. Is there any ecosystem product or service that does not already receive a more or less objective market price - and thus which should receive a shadow or imputed price in our spreadsheets and cost-benefit analyses This
Terms water audit and water balance are often interchanged. However, when talking about a water audit we mean the work related to tracking, assessing, and validating all components of flow of water from the site of withdrawal or treatment, through the water distribution system and into customer properties. The water audit usually exists in the form of a worksheet or spreadsheet that details the variety of consumption and losses that exist in a community water system. The water balance summarizes the results of the water audit in a standardized format (see Fig. 7.1).
Many ecologists and ecologically minded economists suggest that we would appreciate and protect nature more if we attached market prices to the products and services it provides.2 According to one prominent ecologist, Moral arguments are not enough - we have to make nature a regular column in our spreadsheets and cost-benefit analyses, so that natural assets are properly valued in our decisions. 3
The complexity of the theories under discussion here may seem intimidating. But the point is not that everyone needs to explore the deepest details of economic calculations and theories. The economists who are criticized in these pages, along with those who are praised, are generally very good at the details their spreadsheets and computer models lead to quite logical conclusions. If, that is, you accept their assumptions. The goal here is to identify the mistaken assumptions that lead smart people to reach such wrong conclusions.
There are not a lot of green building tools out there on the market today. We were an early user of Ecologic 3. We, at DPR, have created a lot of custom tools that are MS Excel macro-based. We have a tool called the Custom Delivery Model where we not only evaluate the yes, no and maybe for each of the different green strategies, but we also do a cost-benefit analysis of those strategies. For each credit you need, we have a yes, no or maybe and then we have another series of columns that list design-cost impacts, construction-cost impacts, and benefits for the first year, or payback if there is one. That way we have some quantifiable data on what the return on the initial investment is for the client. Ecologic 3 is a good tool for the pre-construction period, but it doesn't take a project all the way from start to finish. Without it, though, we would have been worse off. Once we've arrived at the precursor information the LEED credits we are going to pursue, the first costs for those...
The first step in this analytical process of assessing and calculating the volume of real and apparent losses is to undertake a IWA AWWA recommended standardized top-down water balance (see Chap. 7 for a detailed guidance on how to undertake a water audit). Good management of any resource requires that the supplier maintain accurate records of transactions and deliveries of the commodity provided to its customers. A water balance has exactly that goal, tracking and accounting for every component of water in the cycle of delivery. The water balance tracks the flow of water from the site of withdrawal or treatment, through the water distribution system up to the point of customer consumption. The water balance usually exists in the form of a worksheet or spreadsheet that details the variety of consumption and losses that exist in a water system. The water balance itself is a summary of all the components of consumption and losses in a standardized format. Every unit of water supplied...
The building engineering services should be provided with sufficient energy meters and sub-meters to enable owners or occupiers to measure their actual energy consumption. Sufficient instructions, including an overall metering strategy, must be provided so that owners or occupiers are able to attribute energy consumed to the end use of that energy, and to be able to compare operating performance to published benchmarks (see item 9 of section 18.104.22.168 above). In order to develop a metering strategy, it is first necessary to know how the energy from each fuel will be used in the building, and to have a good estimate of the amount of each fuel that will be consumed. CIBSE TM22 45 provides a standardised procedure for doing this, including prepared spreadsheets and a worked example on CD-ROM. The procedure is in three stages
The RICE-99 and DICE-99 models have been programmed in two different versions. The most accessible version of the models, available on the Internet, are programmed using Microsoft EXCEL (97 or later). In addition, the models have been programmed with a widely used mathematical programming language, GAMS (version 2.50 or later). The current version of the GAMS program has been tested only on the solver MINOS5. The GAMS programs are provided in appendixes D and E of this book. The EXCEL spreadsheet and GAMS programs, along with documentation, are available on the internet at The rows in the EXCEL spreadsheet can be classified as exogenous or endogenous. The exogenous rows consist of numbers that have been entered by the user, and the endogenous rows are formulas. The exogenous rows can be further divided into parameters and policy variables. The policy variables are those that can be determined through the choice of a policymaker rather than by nature regional savings rates and carbon...
When you've established which data you'll be monitoring, you need to have a tracking system in place to help compare your results. It can be as simple as an Excel spreadsheet, or you can get something as in-depth as SQL Server. To decide which tool is best for you, consider these issues Ease of use Although SQL Server databases are very powerful, they aren't for the squeamish. And although an Excel spreadsheet is easy enough to use, it might not be powerful enough to track and cross-match the sorts of data you want to measure. Your tracking system needs to be something that's powerful enough for your needs, yet easy enough to use.
In summary, DICE-99 is very similar in structure to the original DICE model. Those who are familiar with the earlier model will find that the new DICE version requires little learning time and is easy to use and manipulate. The new model is available in both a GAMS version and an EXCEL spreadsheet version, which means that the model can be used with inexpensive and widely available software. The major change from the previous version is recalibration to fit the new findings of the larger and more accurate economic structure of RICE-99. In addition, minor changes are made in the specification of certain parts of the model.
Spreadsheet software usually has a built-in function to calculate correlation coefficients for a given data set. The symbol 'r' is normally used to denote the correlation coefficient, E and P denote energy and production, and E and P denote mean (average) energy and production for the given data set, with n equal to number of energy production pairs (i 1, 2, 3, n).
The equations presented in this chapter can be combined and used to model the whole system. The model includes all physical components of the system, such as the collector, storage tank, heat exchanger, loads, and heat losses from the system components, such as pipes and storage tank. Detailed models result in a set of coupled algebraic and differential equations, with time as the independent variable. The inputs to these equations are meteorological data and load variations (e.g., water draw-off profile). The time step for such a model is usually 1 h, and for annual calculations, a computer is required. More details on these models are given in Chapter 11. In this section, we deal with only simple models that can be solved by hand calculations or the help of a spreadsheet.
IT DEPARTMENTS deal with both processes and projects. A project is a onetime event, such as installing a new inventory management module, refreshing all of the UNIX servers, or implementing an ERP. Processes are actions that are repeated over and over, such as requesting a new user ID, making tape backups, teaching a class the latest version of a spreadsheet program, or repairing a desktop computer. To a degree, even projects have repeated actions that act the same as a process.
The reality of today's information documents is that most of them start out in an electronic format and then are printed. Other than documents that have signatures on them, most are created within spreadsheets, e-mail, word processing, or database applications. The best approach is to try to maintain the electronic format for as long as possible, if not 100 percent of the time. For paper that needs to jump out of the electronic format for a bit, you should aim to get it back into the digital world quickly. The first thing everyone needs is a good scanner. You can buy standalone models, or you can get a printer with built-in scanning capabilities (leverage a printer and photocopier for when your organization has to deal with less enlightened clients and vendors).
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