Western equine Eastern equine St Louis Venezuelan Japanese Murray Valley and Rocio

This group of diseases present with a high fever of acute onset, headache, meningeal

Table 15.1. The important arbovirus infections of humans.





Mainly fever or arthritis


Onyong-nyong West Nile Oropuche Orungo Ross River

Africa, South and Southeast Asia

E. Africa, Senegal

Africa, Asia, Europe, USA

Trinidad, South America

W. Africa, Uganda

Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands

Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. leuteocephalus Anopheles gambiae, A.

funestus Culex pipens molestus, C.

modestus, C. univittatus Mosquitoes, possibly

Culicoides Ae. dentatus, Anopheles spp.

C. annulirostris, Ae. vigilax, Ae. polynesiensis

Baboons, bats, rodents, monkeys



Monkeys, sloths, birds


Fever and encephalitis

Western Equine Americas Eastern Equine Americas, Caribbean

St Louis

Venezuelan Equine


Murray Valley Rocio

Americas, Caribbean Central/South

America, Caribbean, parts of USA

East, South and Southeast Asia

New Guinea, Australia Brazil

C. tarsalis, Culista melanura C. melanura, Aedes and

Coquillettidia spp. C. tarsalis, C. nigripalpus, C.

quinquefasciatus C. tarsalis and other Culex, Aedes, Mansonia, Sabethes, Psorophora, Anopheles, Haemagogus C. tritaeniorhynchus, C.

gelidus, C. fuscocephala C. annulirostris Probably mosquitoes


Birds, rodents



Birds, pigs Birds

Birds? Rodents

Haemorrhagic fevers

Yellow fever

Rift Valley

South America and Africa

Asia, Pacific, Caribbean, Africa, Americas

Africa, Southwest Asia

Kyasanur forest South India Crimean-Congo Europe, Africa, Asia haemorrhagic fever

Ae. aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. furcifer/ taylori, Ae. luteocephalus, Haemagogus spp. Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. scutellaris group, Ae. niveus, Ochlerotatus Ae. caballus, C. theileri, C. quinquefasciatus and other Culex and Aedes Haemaphysalis (hard ticks) Hyalomma spp. (hard ticks)

Monkeys, mosquitoes

Human/mosquito, (Monkeys in jungle cycle) Sheep, cattle, etc. Mosquito

Rodents, monkeys Domestic animals irritation, stupor, disorientation, coma, spasticity and tremors. Fatality rates are variable with up to 30% in Japanese, Eastern equine and Murray Valley. Their distribution, vectors and reservoirs are summarized in Table 15.1. Japanese encephalitis is covered in more detail below.

From the reservoir bird or animal, the organism is often first transmitted to another host, such as horses in the equine arbovirus infections. Humans are then mainly infected from mosquitoes feeding on the horses.

Incubation period is 5-15 days. Susceptibility is highest in the very young and old, with inapparent infection occurring at other age groups.

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