Incubation period weeks

Period of communicability Due to autoinfection and long-living adult worms, once infected, a person can continue to produce larvae for 30-40 years.

Occurrence and distribution Mostly found in the warm wet tropics, the parasite also occurs in temperate areas. S. fiilleborni has only been reported from Africa and Papua

New Guinea. Adults, rather than children, manifest the clinical symptoms, either acquiring the parasite when they were children or in adult life.

Control and prevention All the methods applicable to the other soil-based nematode infections are applicable, such as personal hygiene, careful washing and preparation of vegetables and the wearing of adequate footwear. Soil contamination can be prevented by good sanitation.

Treatment is the same as for hookworm infection or any of these treatments can be combined with ivermectin or diethylcar-bamazine (DEC, see under filariasis, Section 15.7).

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