Incubation period months

Period of communicability is 12 months, but animals act as a permanent reservoir.

Occurrence and distribution East Asia, especially China, Taiwan, Thailand, Borneo and Malaysia, in some 15 million people.

Control and prevention is by the proper preparation and cooking of water plants. Much can be done to reduce transmission by regulating the use of human faeces as a fertilizer. Domestic animals should be kept away from water plant cultivation ponds.









Giardia cyst

H. nana

S. japonicum

H. diminuta

S. mansoni

Balantidium (cyst)


Sputum or faeces


S. haematobium

0 10 30 50

Fig. 9.1. Parasite eggs found in faeces, urine and sputum. E. (nana), Endolimax; E. (coli), E. (histolytica), Entamoeba; F. (hepatica), Fasciola; F. (buski), Fasciolopsis; H. (diminuta), H. (nana), Hymenolepis; S. (haematobium), S. (japonicum), S. (mansoni), Schistosoma.

Fasciola hapatica

Fasciola hapatica

Heterophyes Heterophyes Epidemiology

Treatment is with praziquantel 25 mg/kg three times a day for 1-2 days.

Surveillance When a case is diagnosed, other members of the family should be investigated and a common food source looked for.

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  • lukas schmitt
    What is incubation period in epidemiology?
    8 years ago

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