Environmental Control Methods

Many diseases result from contamination of the environment by faecal matter with transmission by the direct route (e.g. by fingers), or via food and water. The mechanisms are schematically illustrated in Fig. 3.4. The various control methods available are as follows:

• personal and domestic hygiene;

• proper preparation, cooking and storage of food;

• proper disposal of excreta and waste;

• miscellaneous methods including meat inspection and hygiene.

Classifying the water- and sanitation-related diseases into well-defined categories allows

Percentage of population vaccinated

Fig. 3.3. Percentage of cases vaccinated (PCV) per percentage of population vaccinated (PPV), for three values of vaccine efficacy (VE). Reproduced by permission from Weekly Epidemiological Record 7, 20 February 1981. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Percentage of population vaccinated

Fig. 3.3. Percentage of cases vaccinated (PCV) per percentage of population vaccinated (PPV), for three values of vaccine efficacy (VE). Reproduced by permission from Weekly Epidemiological Record 7, 20 February 1981. World Health Organization, Geneva.

rational control methods to be applied (Table 3.1). The potential impact of control methods is seen in Table 3.2.

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