Ectoparasites are non-flying vectors of disease, such as fleas and lice. They are responsible for an important group of infections, which are often associated with animals in which the reservoir of infection is found. Because of the close inter-relation between the ectoparasite and the animals on which it feeds, focal zoonoses (or exoanthropic zoonoses) result. Humans are often the accidental victims of these zoonotic infections, and a knowledge of the biology and how to avoid these foci can often be all that is needed to prevent being infected. At other times, specific methods against the ectoparasite, the animal or both are required.
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