Contents

Introduction x

1 Elements of Communicable Diseases 1

1.1 What are Communicable Diseases? 1

1.2 The Agent 2

1.3 Transmission 7

1.4 Host Factors 11

1.5 The Environment 12

2 Communicable Disease Theory 21

2.1 Force of Infection 21

2.2 Epidemic Theory 22

2.3 Endemicity 28

2.4 Quantitative Dynamics 30

3 Control Principles and Methods 32

3.1 Control Principles 32

3.2 Control Methods - Vaccination 34

3.3 Environmental Control Methods 40

3.4 Vector Control 52

3.5 Treatment and Mass Drug Administration 61

3.6 Other Control Methods 61

4 Control Strategy and Organization 62

4.1 Investigation of an Outbreak 62

4.2 Surveillance 66

4.3 Control and Eradication 68

4.4 Campaigns and General Programmes 69

4.5 Control Organization 69

5 Notification and Health Regulations 73

5.1 International Health Regulations 73

5.2 National Health Regulations 74

5.3 Special Surveillance 74

5.4 Vaccination Requirements 74

6 Classification of Communicable Diseases 77

7 Water-washed Diseases 80

7.1 Scabies 80

7.2 Lice 81

7.3 Superficial Fungal Infections (Dermatophytosis) 82

7.4 Tropical Ulcers 83

7.5 Trachoma 84

7.6 Epidemic Haemorrhagic Conjunctivitis 86

7.7 Ophthalmia Neonatorum 87

7.8 Other Infections 88

8 Faecal-Oral Diseases 89

8.1 Gastro-enteritis 89

8.2 Cryptosporidosis 92

8.3 Cholera 92

8.4 Bacillary Dysentery (Shigellosis) 97

8.5 Giardia 98

8.6 Amoebiasis 98

8.7 Typhoid 100

8.8 Hepatitis A (HAV) 103

8.9 Hepatitis E (HEV) 104

8.10 Poliomyelitis (Polio) 105

8.11 Enterobius (Pin Worm) 107

9 Food-borne Diseases 108

9.1 Food Poisoning 108

9.2 Campylobacter Enteritis 111

9.3 The Intestinal Fluke (Fasciolopsis) 112

9.4 The Sheep Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) 115

9.5 The Fish-transmitted Liver Flukes 115

9.6 The Lung Fluke 117

9.7 The Fish Tapeworm 118

9.8 The Beef and Pork Tapeworms 119

9.9 Trichinosis 121

9.10 Other Infections Transmitted by Food 122

10 Diseases of Soil Contact 124

10.1 Trichuris (Whip Worm) 124

10.2 Ascaris 125

10.3 Hookworms 127

10.4 Strongyloides 130

10.5 Tetanus 132

11 Diseases of Water Contact 136

11.1 Schistosomiasis 136

11.2 Guinea Worm 142

12 Skin Infections 144

12.1 Chickenpox/Shingles (Varicella) 144

12.2 Measles 145

12.3 Rubella 149

12.4 Mumps 150

12.5 Streptococcal Skin Infections 151

12.6 Leprosy 152

13 Respiratory Diseases and Other Airborne Transmitted Infections 156

13.1 Tuberculosis 156

13.2 Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) 164

13.3 Influenza 166

13.4 Whooping Cough (Pertussis) 167

13.5 Diphtheria 168

13.6 Meningococcal Meningitis 169

13.7 Haemophilus influenzae (Meningitis and Pneumonia) 172

13.8 Pneumococcal Disease 172

13.9 Otitis Media 175

13.10 Acute Rheumatic Fever 176

14 Diseases Transmitted Via Body Fluids 178

14.1 Yaws 178

14.2 Pinta 179

14.3 Endemic Syphilis 181

14.4 Venereal Syphilis 181

14.5 Gonorrhoea 183

14.6 Non-gonococcal Urethritis (NGU) 185

14.7 Lymphogranuloma Venereum 186

14.8 Granuloma Inguinale 187

14.9 Chancroid 187

14.10 Genital Herpes 188

14.11 Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 188

14.12 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 189

14.13 Hepatitis B (HBV) 193

14.14 Hepatitis C (HCV) 194

14.15 Hepatitis Delta (HDV) 195

14.16 Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever 196

14.17 Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever 196

14.18 Lassa and Crimea-Congo Haemorrhagic Fevers 197

15 Insect-borne Diseases 198

15.1 Mosquito-borne Diseases 198

15.2 Arboviruses 199

15.3 Japanese Encephalitis (JE) 203

15.4 Dengue 204

15.5 Yellow Fever 206

15.6 Malaria 208

15.7 Lymphatic Filariasis 219

15.8 Onchocerciasis 228

15.9 Loiasis 234

15.10 African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness) 234

15.11 American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas'Disease) 241

15.12 Leishmaniasis 244

16 Ectoparasite Zoonoses 249

16.1 Plague 249

16.2 Typhus 254

16.3 Louse-borne Relapsing Fever 260

16.4 Tick-borne Relapsing Fever 260

16.5 Diseases Transmitted by Hard Ticks 263

16.6 Tick Typhus/Fever 265

16.7 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 266

16.8 Lyme Disease 266

16.9 Arboviruses 267

17 Domestic and Synanthropic Zoonoses 269

17.1 Rabies 269

17.2 Hydatid Disease 272

17.3 Toxocariasis 275

17.4 Larva Migrans 275

17.5 Toxoplasmosis 276

17.6 Brucellosis 277

17.7 Anthrax 279

17.8 Leptospirosis 281

17.9 Lassa Fever 282

18 New and Potential Diseases 284

18.1 The Animal Connection 284

18.2 The Pox Diseases 287

18.3 Nipah and the Lyssa Viruses 287

18.4 Arboviruses 288

18.5 Bioterrorism 288

19 List of Communicable Diseases 290

Index

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