Chikungunya Onyongnyong West Nile Orungo Oropouche and Ross River

This group of infections are summarized in Table 15.1. They present as a denguelike disease (see below) with headache, fever, malaise, arthralgia or myalgia, lasting for a week or less. Rashes are common in Chikungunya, Onyong-nyong and West Nile. Chikungunya may present as a haem-orrhagic fever in India and Southeast Asia (see below), and West Nile and Oro-pouche as encephalitides. Ross River predominantly presents as a polyarthritis and rash. There are many other arbovirus infections presenting as fever, listed in Chapter 19.

Diagnosis of all the arbovirus infections is generally made on clinical grounds, once the initial cases have been identified by virus isolation in a specialist laboratory. A rise in specific IgM in serum or CSF is useful, if available.

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