Members of the network

According to an internal evaluation report written in 1998 the geographical and professional backgrounds of the network participants have become ever more diverse, atthough there has continued to be a larger representation from academia than from any other societal domain (Brand and de Bruijn 1998). At the first meeting in the Netherlands in November 1991 29 of the 68 participants were Dutch, with 14 of them from the research community. Fifteen participants were from the United States, 10 from research institutions. By the time of the fifth conference in 1996 the Dutch contingent had expanded to total 51, and the American contingent totaled 30; the overall number of participants reached 379. And participants from academia had increased from 53 to 76 percent of the total. Let us take a closer and admittedly personal look at some of the "core" actors.

Many members of the network have a cross-disciplinary education, which may combine natural or engineering sciences with social sciences or humanities. Interdisciplinary fields such as science and technology studies (STS) and environmental studies have been well represented at Greening conferences, although the traditional management disciplines have usually provided the largest contingents of academics. Affiliations of the participants tend to reflect the hybrid character of the "greening of industry" in both organizational and disciplinary terms. Many participants come from independent or semi-independent research institutes, often with a non-governmental identity, and many come from new centers or departments of environmental management that have only recently been established at universities.

Many of the participants have an activist background although they might no longer be identified with bona fide activist organizations. Jacqueline Cramer, who co-authored the first conference report with Fischer and Schot, had been a leading environmental activist in the 1970s, and had served as chairman of the Dutch Friends of the Earth, as well as taking active part in the creation of the Amsterdam Science Shop. She had recently joined Schot at TNO after several years at the Department of Science Dynamics at the University of Amsterdam. Peter Groenewegen of the Free University in Amsterdam had also worked for a time at Science Dynamics and was active in the development of science shops, as well as in the environmental movement. Another veteran of the Science Shops movement was Philip Vergragt who had long been working in STS in the Netherlands. In addition to his involvement in GIN Vergragt would initiate the Sustainable Technology Development Program, a collaborative venture among several ministries that would be an exemplary case of Dutch-style "ecological modernization."

There were activists or former activists from other countries at the first meeting - Jack Doyle, a leading critic of agricultural biotechnology, and a long-time environmental activist from the United States; Alan Irwin from Britain, who had worked with environmental groups for many years, as had Per Sorup and Susse Georg from Denmark, who had both served as editors of Naturkampen (Nature Struggle), the Danish "radical science" journal.

In addition to their multidisciplinary and activist orientations many of the participants had been at the forefront of developing environmental management research and education programs. Donald Huisingh, one of the first to work with pollution prevention technology when he was in the US, and who is now professor at the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics in Lund (as well as one of the organizers of the Cleaner Production Roundtable and editor of the Journal for Cleaner Production), was at the first meeting and has taken part in several meetings since. Nicholas Ashford from MIT, another pioneer in environmental management, was at the first meeting and organized the second conference in 1993. Ken Green from the Manchester School of Management, who has been active in developing environmental management research in Britain, joined the network at the second conference and has been one of the core members ever since.

A third constituency that has continued to be active in the network is made up of what might be termed "progressive" business people. Already General Electric and Dow Chemical Corporation were represented at the first meeting, and in the years since companies like Polaroid, Novo Nordisk, General Motors and Sun Computers to name just some of the more actively interested companies, have made presentations at conferences as well as contributing to funding the network. Business representation has not been large in absolute terms, but it has been significant throughout the life of the network. The involvement of Harry Fatkin, who is responsible for environmental affairs at Polaroid, has been perhaps especially important as he has served on the advisory council and helped to plan conferences.

Since the initial meeting there has been the steady participation of a number of environmental officials in both governmental and intergovernmental bodies. Representatives from national and state environmental protection agencies, as well as from the United Nations Environmental Programme, have taken part in all of the conferences, and on selected occasions, members of other ministries or governmental departments, such as industry, finance, and research, have contributed. In addition to the official representation at international conferences workshop activity has often taken the form of collaboration with local governments and environmental authorities in different parts of Europe and North America.

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