This book has been such a long time in the making that there are many contributions to acknowledge. Let me start by thanking Aant Elzinga, who has served as mentor, friend and colleague for all these years, and who read through the almost final manuscript, giving me lots to mull over. Others who have read and commented on portions of the manuscript are Yrjo Haila, Maria Kousis, Trine Pipi Kramer, Jesper Lassen, Rolf Lidskog, Jeppe L^ss0e, David Sonnenfeld, Joe Strahl, and Bron Szerszynski, and an anonymous referee for Cambridge University Press. Thank you all; I think it has become a much better book for your efforts. Sarah Caro at Cambridge has played a crucial nurturing role which has been highly professional and highly appreciated, as has the copyediting of Christine Lyall Grant.
In developing the ideas that I present, a number of contributions have been absolutely essential. Jacqueline Cramer and Jeppe L^ss0e worked with Ron Eyerman and me in the 1980s when we compared the environmental movements in Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Much of the theoretical and conceptual framework that I use in the book was developed at that time, and later, together with Ron Eyerman, in our subsequent books on social movements. Other contributions have come from Gan Lin, Bach Tan Sinh and Joe Strahl, and, in particular, Erik Baark, as we have explored the cultural dimensions of science and technology policy in a number of different guises through the years. Let me especially thank Ron and Erik for providing a very special kind of intellectual collaboration that is reflected on so many of the pages that follow.
In 1996, I had the dubious honor of being given responsibility for coordinating a project in the European Union's program on targeted socio-economic research, which provided the immediate incentive to write this book. My partners - Mario Diani, Leonardas Rinkevicius, Johan Schot, Brian Wynne, and Per 0stby - are all to be thanked, as are all of our research assistants, for making the project a true learning experience in more ways than one. More recently, my students and colleagues at Aalborg University and in the Danish Center for Environmental
Social Science have been subjected to countless versions of these chapters at courses and seminars, as well as at more informal gatherings. Arne Remmen and Eskild Holm Nielsen, my collaborators in the project The Industrial Appropriation of Pollution Prevention, have been especially important in helping me to understand the Danish varieties of green knowledge-making, as well as the Aalborg style of education. The book has been written while I have participated in another European project, The Transformation of Environmental Activism, and I would like to thank my partners, and especially the project coordinator Chris Rootes, for helping me to bring my understanding up to date.
A number of people have invited me to make presentations at conferences and seminars, and have offered comments and suggestions that I have tried my best to take into account in the process of writing. Let me thank, in particular, Ida Andersen, Marianne Bender, Maurie Cohen, Hans Glimell, Mogens Godballe, Robin Grove-White, Yrjo Haila, Maarten Hajer, Mikael Hard, Per Hillbur, Richard Norgaard, Richard Rogers, Harald Rohracher, Knut S0rensen, Per S0rup, and Jane Summerton for giving me the opportunity to air my evolving ideas in public.
Research costs money, and so it is the Danish, Nordic and European tax-payers and their representatives, who, in the final analysis, have made it possible for me to write this book. In particular, I acknowledge the support of the European Union and the Nordic Environmental Research Program for the project on Public Engagement and Science and Technology Policy Options, and the support of the Danish Strategic Environmental Research Program for the project on Industrial Appropriation of Pollution Prevention. I hope that at least some of you who have paid for the projects feel that the money was well spent. On the home front, finally, Margareta and Klara have probably suffered the most as I have let this book take over far too much of my attention, and keep me from doing my share in the garden (among other places) during the last couple of years. Thank you all!
As part of my belief in recycling, portions of this book have appeared in preliminary versions in the following copyrighted publications, which I hereby acknowledge:
Seeds of the Sixties (co-author Ron Eyerman), University of California Press, 1994; The Shaping of the Global Environmental Agenda: The Role of Non-governmental Organizations, in Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski and Brian Wynne, eds., Risk Environment Modernity: Towards a New Ecology, Sage Publications, 1996; American Anxieties: Technology and the Reshaping of American Values, in Mikael Hard and Andrew Jamison, eds., The Intellectual Appropriation of Technology. Discourses on
Modernity, 1900-1939, The MIT Press, 1998; National Shades of Green: Comparing the Swedish and Danish Styles in Ecological Modernisation (co-author ErikBaark) in Environmental Values, no. 2, 1999: 119-218; On the Ambiguities of Greening, in Innovation. The European Journal of Social Sciences, no. 3, 2000: 249-264; Science, Technology and the Quest for Sustainable Development, in Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, no. 1, 2001: 9-22; and Environmentalism in an Entrepreneurial Age: Reflections on the Greening of Industry Network, in Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, no. 1, 2001: 1-13.
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