It is focused equally on the physical aspects of energy supply and consumption and on the human aspects related to the operation and maintenance of facilities. Generally speaking, the scope of energy system analysis includes examination of the following:
• energy conversion (in boilers, transformers, compressors, furnaces, etc.);
• energy distribution (of electricity, steam, condensate, compressed air, water, hot oil, etc.);
• energy end-users' efficiency (equipment and buildings);
• waste minimization and reuse, recovery or recycling (energy, water);
• production planning, operation, maintenance and housekeeping procedures;
• management aspects (information flow, data analysis, feedback, education of employees, their motivation, etc.).
Therefore, the emphasis is not only on the singular aspects of the efficiency of a particular energy utility generation and distribution but also on the integration of the energy needs of a particular production
process, the supply side options available to satisfy these needs, and management techniques, which tie together all the resources (people, energy, technology) in a cost effective way.
In this book we are going to apply this systematic approach to the consideration of the following industrial energy systems:
• Industrial Steam Systems;
• Electrical Power Systems;
• Compressed Air Systems;
• Refrigeration Systems;
• Industrial Co-generation.
With the exception of industrial co-generation, all of the other systems are very common in industry. Industrial co-generation is considered separately as it can substantially increase the efficiency of energy transformations not only at the factory level but also at the national economy level if it is used on a large scale. Recognizing that fact, many countries have started to promote co-generation in an organized manner and have elaborated mechanisms for the promotion of co-generation in industry and other sectors of the economy.
Electrical systems are unavoidable in industry and industrial steam systems are often present in many industries. Compressed air and refrigeration systems are both large consumers of electrical energy. Each of these systems contains a number of electric motors which drive pumps and fans. There are also a large number of heat exchanges of various types which are driven by more or less complex process requirements. All of these individual elements, as well as the overall system design, impact directly on energy efficiency. The individual elements of industrial energy systems are discussed separately in Part III - Toolboxes.
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