Factories are not built to consume energy and pollute the environment but to deliver products and services. Energy is always needed for every operation in the production chain of any factory. That is why we are focusing our attention on energy performance throughout a production chain, as a driver for both energy and environmental performance improvement. Where production requires some other resources, the performance of processing these resources and the environmental impacts of their use should be related to production volume and performance analyzed in the same methodological way as that developed for energy.

It is important to emphasize that environmental impacts and pollution are the consequence of energy use and materials processing. Where no energy or materials are used, there are no environmental impacts. If the process's use of energy and materials is optimized, the resulting environmental impacts will be minimized! What remains to be done is end-of-pipe treatment, since the quantities of emissions, effluents and waste will be minimized as a result of the optimized use of energy and materials. Whenever some raw materials are processed, energy is required, therefore we stress again that energy management is a driver for environmental performance management.

A production process is a combination of people, equipment, raw materials, processing methods and environmental constraints that work together to produce an output. A process is a designed sequence of operations taking up some time, space, expertise and input resources, which are transformed into an outcome of greater value to the company than the original inputs. Hence, every process will have some inputs - raw materials, energy, labor, technology - and some outputs, i.e. products or services. A process is the base for all performance considerations, and people are the key factor for achieving good performance. The dynamics of interactions among all these factors (Fig. 2.1) will determine the energy and environmental performance of the process concerned.

It is within the production processes that additional value is created. The volume of production output determines the amount of energy and other resources needed. Consequently, the volume of production determines the type and amount of environmental impacts. So, it is within a production process that good performance is either achieved or not. It is also the source of data which can be used to quantify interactions between production outputs, consumption of resources, environmental impacts and resulting energy and environmental performance.

Applied Industrial Energy and Environmental Management Zoran K. Morvay and Dusan D. Gvozdenac © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd


Figure 2.1 Production Process -Foundation for Development of an Energy and Environmental Management System


Figure 2.1 Production Process -Foundation for Development of an Energy and Environmental Management System

We will elaborate upon the basic aspects of these interactions in order to achieve the better understanding necessary for the development and introduction of the EEM concept.

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