The actual level of energy and environmental performance is determined by how people operate machines, equipment and processes, under given external and internal circumstances characterized by influencing factors, as identified earlier in Part I Chapter 3. An energy and environmental audit (EEA) is the process that establishes the current performance level and identifies projects and measures for energy and environmental performance improvement (Fig. 4.2).
The inputs for EEA are process and energy flowcharts, related blueprints and applicable environmental regulations. At the heart of EEA is a measuring campaign that complements (and verifies) existing data on energy and environmental performance. A prelude for a measuring campaign is preparation of a work plan for thorough technical data collection and for carrying out on-site activities and for planning the necessary measurements.
4.4.1 Planning and Preparation for Data Collection
For any project planning and preparation is a crucial phase. Planning includes at least the following:
• lay out a time table and the scope of all activities;
• set-up the project team and assign specific tasks;
• establish a relationship with the plant's management and personnel;
• establish effective lines of communication and co-ordination between the project team and the plant's personnel;
• initiate data gathering;
• kick off the project successfully.
The planning activities should be documented in the form of a work plan, which should also be shared with the plant's personnel prior to visiting the plant in order to carry out the intended work. The work plan will outline which part of the plant is to be visited, the purpose of the visit, documentation and data required and the plant personnel to be involved (Box 4.2).
Toolbox III-2 contains a number of forms that may help in structuring the process of data collection, which can be used as checklists so that important information is not omitted and which can provide guidelines for personnel involved in an audit on the scope and the steps to be taken in the work ahead. This toolbox can be used to support the preparation of the work plan. The work plan will facilitate the collection of relevant and available data from invoices and other available sources based on:
Box 4.2: Sample Work Plan for EEA
A) Sterilization plant
©To establish available data on process flow parameters; raw material and utilities within the plant:
(2^ To establish existing measuring points;
(3) To establish actual control system arrangements and practice;
©To establish available and relevant data on the compressed air system (process requirements and operational practices)
©To establish available and relevant data on the boiler plant (process requirements and operational practices)
®To establish available and relevant data on the steam distribution and condensate return system (process requirements and operational practices)
(4) To establish existing measuring points
To establish actual control system arrangements
C) Background documents
Detailed single line diagrams Process flow charts (N^ Daily log book forms
D) Company representatives included
Sterilization plant representative (production manager or shift supervisor) Utility representatives
• monthly amounts of energy consumption for at least last 12 months (electricity, fuels):
- quantity used
- amount of money paid
- tariff system
• raw water and treated water:
- quality, quantities, costs
• information on electricity, steam or water meters around the site:
- type, age, last calibration date, intervals of readings and reporting.
The collected data will provide inputs for the calculation of energy balances, and determination of specific energy costs in a unit of production.
4.4.3 Data Collection on Production Processes
To develop an understanding of production processes, the following data needs to be collected:
• plant layout and description;
• production processes and products;
• original design specifications;
• process flow diagrams;
• operating and production records:
- capacity utilization,
- hours of operation,
- monthly production output data
• operating manuals;
• maintenance records;
• major plant disruption incidents, frequent breakdowns;
• plant availability; on-line times, off-line times (scheduled and unscheduled);
• Expansion: in hand, planned or anticipated;
• raw materials: types, quantities, costs;
• finished products: types, quantities, prices.
Based on this data, we should be able to assess the performance of material use, to comment on quality issues, to assess adequacy of manufacturing planning regarding optimizing costs of production and capacity use and to understand ongoing maintenance and operational practices.
4.4.4 Specification of Major Utilities and End-Use Equipment
Toolbox III-2 also contains the forms for data collection on main utilities. When planning data collection on utilities and major equipment, it is important to approach the task systematically. This means not only performing checks on the utility side, but also establishing what the main users of this energy/utility type are, the distribution and control arrangements and the actual demand and losses. This is the essence of a systematic approach to EEA.
An example of a work plan for a systematic approach to detailed analysis of a compressed air system is shown in Box 4.3.
Box 4.3: Sample Work Plan for Analysis of Compressed Air System
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