Contents

Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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About the Authors xvii

Preface xix Introductory Chapter: Framework for Energy and Environmental

Management in Industry 1

1 Introduction l

2 Energy Use by Industrial Operations 2

3 Environmental Impacts of Industrial Operations 6

4 End Use Energy Efficiency 9

5 Efficiency of Using Raw Materials 1O

6 Global Energy Policy Framework 11

7 Energy and Environmental Policies l4

7.1 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) l4

7.2 Energy Markets Deregulation and Liberalization l4

7.3 Consumers' Choice in the Liberalized Energy Market l4

7.4 Emissions Trading l5

7.5 Compulsory Energy Efficiency Programs l6 7.5.1 ENCON Program in Thailand 16

7.6 Voluntary Programs l7 7.6.1 Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) 17

S Industries' Self-Motivation for Effective Energy and Environmental Performance l7

9 Environmentally Responsible Investing l9

10 Where to Look for Energy and Environmental Performance Improvements 2O

11 Bibliography 2l

Part I: Energy and Environmental Management System in Industry (EEMS) 23

1 Introducing the Energy and Environmental Management System 25

1.1 Introduction 25

1.2 Definition of terms 26

1.2.1 System 26

1.2.2 Management 27

1.2.3 Performance 28

1.2.4 Information 29

1.2.5 Performance Indicators 3O

1.2.6 Knowledge 3O

1.2.7 Management System S1

1.2.S Environmental Impacts S1

1.2.9 Energy Performance S2

1.2.1G Environmental Performance S2

1.2.11 Performance of Materials Use SS

1.2.12 Environmental Management S4 1.2.1S Energy Management S4

l.S Energy and Environmental Management System S5

1.4 Objectives of Energy and Environmental Management S7

1.5 Dynamics of Energy and Environmental Management S7

1.6 Human Aspects of Energy and Environmental Management SS

1.6.1 Change S9

1.6.2 Aspects of Change 4G 1.6.S Barriers to Overcome 41

1.6.4 Unawareness of Opportunities 41

1.6.5 De-motivating Aspects 42

1.6.6 Motivating People 42

1.6.7 Providing Leadership 4S 1.6.S Top Management's Visible Commitment to EEM 46 1.6.9 Decisions to be Made 47 1.6.1G Visibility 4S 1.6.11 Working with People Towards a Successful EEMS Project 49

1.6.11.1 Managers 49

1.6.11.2 Employees 5G

1.7 Initiating Training, Awareness and Motivation Programs 5G

1.7.1 Management 5G

1.7.2 Technical Managers and Supervisors 52 1.7.S Awareness and Motivation for all Employees 5S

1.S Bibliography 54

2 The Energy and Environmental Management Concept 55

2.1 Introduction 55

2.2 Interactions between Energy and Production 56 2.S Energy Cost Centers 57

2.4 Assigning Responsibilities for Energy and Environmental Performance 6G

2.5 Performance Measurement System 61

2.5.1 Metrics 6S

2.5.2 Measurement Data Sources 6S 2.5.S Data Handling Procedures 6S

2.5.4 Data Verification 6S

2.5.5 Measurement Frequency 65

2.5.6 Supporting Infrastructure 66

2.5.7 Raw Material Performance Indicators 66 2.5.S Energy Performance Indicators 66 2.5.9 Data Adequacy 69 2.5.1G Performance Targets 7G 2.5.11 Environmental Performance Indicators 7G

2.5.11.1 Integrated Pollution Prevention Control 72

2.5.11.2 Eco-Management and Audit Scheme 74

2.5.11.3 Environmental Management Standard ISO 14000 74

2.5.11.4 Emissions Trading 74

2.5.11.5 Global Reporting Initiative 75

2.6 Effective Use of Energy and Environmental Performance Indicators 78

2.7 Concept of Energy and Environmental Management System 80

2.8 Context of Energy and Environmental Management 81

2.8.1 External Context 81

2.8.2 Internal Context 83

2.8.3 Factors that Influence Energy and Environmental Performance 85

2.9 Bibliography 86

3 Relationship between Energy Use and Production Volume 87

3.1 Introduction 87

3.2 Energy/Production Relationship by Design 87

3.3 Energy/Production Relationship by Standard Operational Procedure 89

3.4 Presenting the Dynamics of the Energy/Production Relationship by Scatter Diagram 91

3.5 Interpretation of Energy/Production Data Pattern on the Scatter Diagram 94

3.6 Statistical Methods for Energy/Production Variability Analysis 98

3.6.1 Regression Analyses 99

3.6.2 Correlation Analyses 101

3.7 Meaning and Use of the Regression Line in Energy Performance Evaluation 102

3.7.1 Quantifying and Understanding Energy/Production Variability 103

3.7.2 Fixed and Variable Energy Consumption 106

3.7.3 Specific Energy Consumption 107

3.8 Summary of Presenting and Analyzing the Energy/Production Relationship 108

3.9 Bibliography 109

4 Evaluating the Performance of Energy and Environmental Management Practice 111

4.1 Evaluation of Past Performance 111

4.2 Energy and Environmental Auditing 113

4.2.1 Scope of Energy Audit 114

4.2.2 Scope of Environmental Audit 117

4.3 Evaluating Organizational Aspects 117

4.3.1 Qualitative Evaluation 117

4.3.2 Quantitative Evaluation 119

4.4 Evaluating Operational Aspects 121

4.4.1 Planning and Preparation for Data Collection 121

4.4.2 Data Collection on Energy Consumption 121

4.4.3 Data Collection on Production Processes 123

4.4.4 Specification of Major Utilities and End-Use Equipment 123

4.4.5 Data Collection on Environmental Impacts 125

4.4.6 Assessing On-Site Metering and Control Equipment 126

4.4.7 Measurement Plan 127

4.4.8 Timing 127

4.4.9 Records and Note Keeping 129

4.4.10 Instrumentation 129

4.4.11 Calculations 129

4.4.12 Economic and Financial Analysis 129

4.4.13 Presentation of Audit Results 130

4.5 Setting a Baseline for Monitoring Performance Improvements 133

4.6 Setting Initial Targets for Performance Improvement 134

4.6.1 Setting Targets at the Company's Level 134

4.6.2 Setting Targets on ECC Level 135

4.6.3 Targets for Different Products 135

4.7 Monitoring Energy and Environmental Performance 136

4.8 Verifying Performance Improvements - CUSUM Technique 138

4.9 Moving Toward Targets - Process of Change 144 4.10 Bibliography 145

5 Implementation of the Energy and Environmental Management

System 147

5.1 Introduction 147

5.2 Phases of EEMS Implementation Process 149

5.3 Preparation and Planning 149

5.3.1 Energy and Environmental Policy 150

5.3.2 Assigning Management Responsibilities for Energy and

Environment 154

5.3.3 EEMS Organization 154

5.4 Implementation Plan 157

5.4.1 Initiate Awareness and Training Programs 158

5.4.1.1 Awareness and Motivation 158

5.4.1.2 Training 160

5.4.2 Installation of Performance Measurement System 163

5.4.3 Target Setting 164

5.5 EEMS Operation 166 5.5.1 Performance Data Interpretation 169

5.5.1.1 Evaluation of Operational Practice 169

5.6 Learning Through EEMS Operation 171

5.6.1 Learning Cycle 171

5.6.2 Learning through People's Performance Evaluation 173

5.7 Continuity and Communication 173

5.8 Integration of EEMS with Business Management System 175

6 Energy and Environmental Management as a Driver for Integrated Performance Management 177

6.1 Introduction 177

6.2 Integrated Performance Management in Operations 179

6.3 Strategic Aspects of Performance Management 183

6.3.1 Identifying External Factors Influencing Performance 184 6.3.1.1 Identifying Technological Changes 185

6.3.2 Organizational Fragmentation 189 6.3.2.1 Data Fragmentation 190

6.4 Integrated Performance Measurement System 191 6.4.1 Knowledge Discovery 195

6.5 Integrated Performance Management 196

6.6 Conclusion 201

6.7 Bibliography 202

Part II: Engineering Aspects of Industrial Energy Management 203

1 Introduction to Industrial Energy Systems 205

1.1 Introduction 205

1.2 Industrial Energy Systems Analysis 207

2 Industrial Steam System 211

2.1 System Description 211

2.1.1 Boilers 211

2.1.2 Steam Distribution System 212

2.1.3 Steam End-users 212

2.1.4 Condensate Return System 213

2.2 System Performance Definition 213 2.2.1 The Cost of Steam 214

2.3 Principles of Performance Analysis 217

2.3.1 Performance Improvement Opportunities 217

2.3.2 Example 1: Steam System Energy Performance Analysis 218

2.4 Analysis of Boiler Performance 223

2.4.1 Direct (Input/Output) Method 225

2.4.2 Indirect (Heat Losses) Method 227

2.4.2.1 Heat Energy Loss due to Flue Gas 227

2.4.2.2 Heat Energy Loss due to Chemically Incomplete Combustion 230

2.4.2.3 Heat Energy Loss due to Mechanically Incomplete Combustion 230

2.4.2.4 Heat Energy Loss due to Radiation 231

2.4.2.5 Heat Energy Loss due to Slag 232

2.4.2.6 Heat Energy Loss due to Blow-down 232

2.4.2.7 Summary of Indirect Boiler Efficiency Determination 233

2.4.3 Preparing a Measurement Plan for Boiler Performance Analysis 233

2.5 Factors Influencing Boiler Performance 236

2.5.1 Boiler Load 236

2.5.2 Boiler Design 236

2.5.3 Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces 238

2.5.3.1 Gas-side Fouling 238

2.5.3.2 Water-side Fouling 238

2.5.4 Boiler Operation Controls 240

2.5.5 Water Quality 243

2.6 Opportunities for Boiler Performance Improvement 246

2.6.1 Combustion Efficiency Improvement 247

2.6.2 Load Scheduling 249

2.6.3 Waste Heat Recovery Techniques 249

2.6.3.1 Heat Recovery from Flue Gas 249

2.6.3.2 Combustion Air Pre-Heating System 250

2.6.3.3 Heat Recovery from Boiler Blow-down 250

2.6.4 Boiler Water Treatment Improvement 251

2.6.5 Boiler Control System Improvement 251

2.7 Software for Boiler Performance Analysis 252

2.7.1 Software 4: FUELS, COMBUSTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 252

2.7.2 Software 5: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF WATER AND STEAM 254

2.7.3 Software 7: EFFICIENCY OF STEAM BOILERS 254

2.7.4 Software 9: THE HEAT EXCHANGER'S OPERATING POINT DETERMINATION 256

2.7.5 Example 2: Boiler Efficiency Improvement 256

2.7.5.1 Facility Description 256

2.7.5.2 Steam Generation and Fuel Consumption 259

2.7.5.3 Measurements, Technical Calculations and Analysis 260

2.7.5.4 Best Operation Practice 261

2.7.5.5 Efficiency Calculation Based on Measured Values 263

2.7.5.6 Summary of Performance Improvement Measures (PIMs) 265

2.8 Boiler Performance Monitoring 268 2.8.1 Values to be Monitored 268

2.9 Steam Distribution and Condensate Return System 271

2.9.1 Steam Distribution System Performance Analysis 271

2.9.2 Influencing Factors on Steam Distribution System

Performance 272

2.9.2.1 Steam Leaks 273

2.9.2.2 Insulation 273

2.10 Condensate Return System 274

2.10.1 Flash Steam Recovery 275

2.10.2 Performance Improvement Opportunities 276

2.10.3 Software 8 STEAM SYSTEM INSULATION 277

2.10.4 Example 3: Steam and Condensate System Insulation

Improvements 277

2.10.5 Performance Monitoring of Steam Distribution and Condensate Return

System 280

2.11 Environmental Impacts 281

2.11.1 Ambient Air Pollution 281

2.11.2 Water Pollution 281

2.11.3 Carbon Emission Factors 283

2.11.4 Example 4: Practical Calculation of Carbon Emission

Reduction 283

2.12 Bibliography 283

3 Industrial Electric Power System 285

3.1 Introduction 285

3.2 Description of Industrial Electric Power Systems 286

3.3 Basic Terms 286

3.3.1 Active and Reactive Power and Power Factor 286

3.3.2 Load Diagram 288

3.3.3 Peak Demand 289

3.3.4 Power and Energy 289

3.3.5 Load Factor 290

3.3.6 Quality of Power Supply 290

3.4 Tariff System 292

3.5 Main Components of Industrial Electric Power Systems 293

3.5.1 Transformers 293

3.5.2 Cables 294

3.5.3 Electric Motors 294

3.6 Performance Assessment of Industrial Electric Power Systems 297

3.7 Performance Improvement Opportunities 300

3.7.1 Load Management 301

3.7.2 Demand Control 301

3.7.2.1 Example 1: Demand Control by Stand-by Diesel Generators 303

3.7.2.2 Example 2: Relation between Load Factor, Demand Charges and

Total Electricity Costs 305

3.7.3 Power Factor Correction 306 3.7.3.1 Example 3: Power Factor Correction from 0.6 to 0.9 307

3.7.4 Electric Motor Drives 308

3.7.4.1 Variable Speed Drives (VSD) 308

3.7.4.2 Correct Operational Procedure 309

3.7.4.3 Example 4: Comparison of Fan Operations with Constant and

Variable Speed Control 311

3.8 Maintenance Considerations 315

3.9 Performance Monitoring 316

3.9.1 Power Quality Indicators 316

3.9.2 Electric Motor Drives - Maintenance Needs Indicators 317

3.9.3 Electric Motor Drives - Operational Practice Indicators 318

3.10 Environmental Impacts 319 3.10.1 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 320

3.11 Bibliography 321

4 Compressed Air System 323

4.1 System Description 323

4.1.1 Compressors 324

4.1.2 Air Pressure 325

4.1.3 Air Receiver 325

4.1.4 Water Removal 325

4.1.5 PipeWork 327

4.1.6 Ventilation of Compressor Room 327

4.2 Performance Analysis 327

4.2.1 Compressor's Performance Graph 328

4.2.2 Measurements 329

4.2.2.1 Power 330

4.2.2.2 Pressure 330

4.2.2.3 Flow Rates 330

4.2.2.4 Temperature 331

4.2.2.5 Compressed Air Leakage Determination 331

4.3 Performance Improvement Opportunities 333

4.3.1 Operation and Maintenance 333

4.3.2 Control Systems 333

4.3.2.1 Compressors 333

4.3.2.2 Control of Compressed Air Quality Standard 336

4.3.2.3 Cooling Water Quality Control 337

4.3.3 Performance Improvement Measures 337

4.3.3.1 Compressed Air Leakage Reduction 337

4.3.3.2 Control System 337

4.3.3.3 Discharge Pressure 339

4.3.3.4 Waste Heat Recovery 339

4.4 Performance Monitoring 340 4.4.1 Values to be Monitored 340

4.5 Example: Detailed Energy Audit of Compressed Air System 341 4.5.1 System Inspection, Testing and Fault Finding 343

4.5.1.1 Activities before the Plant's Shut-down 344

4.5.1.2 Air Leak Test (during Shut-down) 345

4.5.1.3 Average Power of Compressor 348

4.5.1.4 Air Leak Test of Distribution Network

(Non-Production Period) 349

4.5.1.5 Pressure Drop 350

4.5.1.6 Ventilation of Compressor Room 351

4.5.1.7 Recommendations 351

4.5.1.8 Expected Energy Savings 352

4.6 Example: Comparison of Load/Unload and Pump-up Tests 352

4.6.1 Load/Unload Test 352

4.6.2 Pump-up Test 353

4.7 Bibliography 354

5 Refrigeration System 355

5.1 Description of System 355 5.1.1 Principles of Operation 356

5.1.1.1 Vapor-Compression Refrigeration 357

5.1.1.2 Vapor-Absorption Refrigeration 360

5.2 Performance Definitions 361 5.2.1 Factors Affecting Performance 364

5.2.1.1 Evaporating Temperature 364

5.2.1.2 Condenser Temperature 365

5.2.1.3 Compressor Isentropic Efficiency 367

5.2.1.4 Auxiliary Power 367

5.2.1.5 Cooling Loads 368

5.2.1.6 Part-Load Operation 368

5.3 Performance Analysis 371

5.4 Performance Improvement Opportunities 373

5.4.1 Maintenance 373

5.4.2 Control System 374

5.4.3 Operational Procedures 376

5.5 Performance Monitoring 376

5.5.1 Values to be Monitored 376

5.5.2 Software 11: Refrigeration Systems Analysis

(Vapor-Compression Cycles) 377

5.5.3 Software 10: Cooling Towers Calculation 379

5.6 Example: Improvement of Chilled Water System Operation 381

5.6.1 Basic Data on Chilled Water System 381

5.6.2 As Built Scheme of Chilled Water System 382

5.6.3 Data Collection, Measurement and Analysis 382

5.6.4 Performance Improvement Measures (PIM) 390

5.6.5 Cost Benefit Analysis 392

5.7 Bibliography 393

6 Industrial Cogeneration 395

6.1 System Description 395

6.2 Principles of Operation 397

6.3 Types of Industrial Cogeneration Plants 398

6.3.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Each System 401

6.3.2 Thermally-Activated Technologies 401

6.4 Operational Modes of Cogeneration Systems 405

6.5 Performance Definition 406

6.6 Factors Influencing Performance 407

6.6.1 Load of Cogeneration Plant 408

6.6.2 Load Duration Curve 409

6.7 Economic Aspects of Cogeneration as a Performance Improvement Measure 411

6.7.1 Capital Cost 411

6.7.2 Operating and Maintenance Costs 412

6.7.3 Overall Economics of Cogeneration Projects 413

6.8 Performance Assessment 415

6.9 Performance Monitoring and Improvement 415

6.10 Environmental Impacts 415

6.11 Case Study: Drying Kiln (Gas Turbine Operation Philosophy Improvement) 417

6.11.1 Facts 418

6.11.2 Description of Kiln 419

6.11.3 Objectives of Analysis 420

6.11.4 Measurement, Technical Calculation and Analysis 421

6.11.5 Energy Performance Improvements 424

6.11.6 Environmental Impact 426

6.12 Bibliography 426

Part III: Toolbox - Fundamentals for Analysis and Calculation of Energy and

Environmental Performance 429

Index

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