1.1 Treaties signed at the world environment meetings in Rio de Janeiro—June 1992 2

1.2 Energy use, technological development and the environment 4

2.1 Average gaseous composition of dry air in the troposphere 15

2.2 Estimated impacts of different radiative forcing agents in watts per square metre 23

2.3 El Niño events of various intensities by century: 1525-1987 25

2.4 Some commonly used general circulation models 37

3.1 Wet and dry spells in Africa south of the Sahara 40

3.2 Examples of drought and aridity indices 41

3.3 Action required for the prevention and reversal of desertification 62 4.1 Commitment of selected nations to the reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions 95

6.1 Different forms of ultraviolet radiation 121

6.2 Some common anthropogenically produced ozone destroying chemicals 130

7.1 Sources of greenhouse gas emissions 145

7.2 A condensation of the IPCC Executive Summary on Climate Change: 1990 152

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