Chlorine oxides

The extent to which naturally produced chlorine monoxide (CIO) contributes to the destruction of the ozone layer is not clear. The most abundant natural chlorine compound is hydrochloric acid (HC1). Although it is present in large quantities in the lower atmosphere, HCl is highly reactive and soluble in water, and Crutzen (1974) considered that it was unlikely to diffuse into the stratosphere in sufficient quantity to have a major effect on the ozone layer. The addition of large amounts of chlorine compounds to the stratosphere during volcanic eruptions was also proposed as a mechanism for the natural destruction of the ozone layer (Stolarski and Cicerone 1974), but observations of the impact of large volcanic eruptions—such as that of Mt Agung (see Chapter 5)—on the ozone layer, do not support that proposition (Crutzen 1974). The impact of naturally occurring CIO on the ozone layer was therefore considered relatively insignificant compared to that of NOx and HOx. By 1977, however, measurements showed that the contribution of chlorine to ozone destruction was growing (Dotto and Schiff 1978), but largely from human rather than natural sources. Anthropogenically produced chlorine now poses a major threat to the ozone layer.

The Basic Survival Guide

The Basic Survival Guide

Disasters: Why No ones Really 100 Safe. This is common knowledgethat disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.

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