The preparation of the original edition of this book involved the work of many people. Although the experience gained then made things easier for me this time, this second edition—like the first—represents the combined efforts of a variety of individuals who helped me in many ways. Tristan Palmer of Routledge was the ideal editor, providing appropriate guidance and encouragement as required. In the Department of Geography at Lakehead, Gwen Henry dealt with the revisions and additions in her usual efficient manner, and Cathy Chapin redrew many of the maps and diagrams for this edition. Catherine Fear provided invaluable editorial services and Jane Mayger guided me through the production process. Their help is much appreciated. The reviewers who commented on the first edition, and my colleagues and students who drew my attention to new material have my thanks also. I am again grateful to my wife and daughters for their patience, encouragement and understanding while living under the shadow of 'the book'. My thanks are also due to the following for allowing me to reproduce copyright material:

Figures 2.8 and 2.9 From Rasmusson, E.M. and Hall, J.M. (1983) 'El Niño', Weatherwise 36:166-75. Reprinted with permission of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. Published by Heldref Publications, 1319 Eighteenth St, N.W., Washington, DC 200361802. Copyright© 1983. Figure 3.1 Reprinted with the permission of the Royal Meteorological Society from Nicholson,

S.E. (1989) 'Long-term changes in African rainfall', Weather 44:47-56.

Figure 3.5 Reprinted with permission from Forum Africa 1985, Canadian International Development Agency.

Figure 3.9 This first appeared in the New Scientist magazine, London, the weekly review of science and technology in Cross, M. (1985a) 'Africa's drought may last many years', New Scientist 105:9.

Figure 3.14 Reprinted with permission from Bryson, R.A. and Murray, T.J. (1977) Climates of Hunger, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Figures 4.5 and 4.14 Reprinted with permission from Park, C.C. (1987) Acid Rain: Rhetoric and Reality, London: Methuen.

Figures 4.6 and 5.9 Reprinted from Barrie, L.A. (1986) 'Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge', Atmospheric Environment, 20:643-63. Copyright 1986, with kind permission from Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, U.K.

Figure 4.7 Reprinted with permission from Charles, D.F., Battarbee, R.W., Reuberg, I., VanDam, H. and Smot, J.P. (1990) 'Palaeoecological analysis of lake acidification trends in North America and Europe using diatoms and clirysophytes', in S.A.Norton, S.E.Lindberg and A.L.Page (eds) Acidic Precipitation, Volume 4, Soils, Aquatic Processes and Lake Acidification, New York: Springer-Verlag.

Figures 4.8 and 4.10 Reprinted with permission from Harvey, H.H. (1989) 'Effects of acidic precipitation on lake ecosystems', in D.C. Adriano and A.H.Johnson (eds), Acidic Precipitation, Volume 2, Biological and Ecological Effects, New York: SpringerVerlag.

Figure 4.13 This first appeared in New Scientist magazine, London, the weekly review of science and technology, in Ridley, M. (1993) 'Cleaning up with cheap technology', New Scientist, 137:16-17.

Figure 5.4 Reprinted with permission from Bradley, R.S. and Jones, P.D. (1992) Climate since A.D. 1500, London: Routledge.

Figure 6.7 Reprinted with permission from Mackie, R., Hunter, J.A.A., Aitchison, T.C., Hole, D., McLaren, K., Rankin, R., Blessing K., Evans, A.T., Hutcheon, A.W., Jones, D.H., Soutar, D.S., Watson, A.C.H., Cornbleet, M.A. and Smith, J.F. (1992) 'Cutaneous malignant melanoma, Scotland 1979-89', The Lancet 339:971-5. Copyright by The Lancet Ltd (1992).

Figure 7.1 Reprinted with permission from Jones, M.D.H. and Henderson-Sellers, A. (1990) 'History of the greenhouse effect', Progress in Physical Geography 14:1-18. Copyright Edward Arnold (1990).

Figures 7.4 and 7.6 Reprinted with permission from SCOPE 29: Bolin, B., Boos, B.R., Jagar, J. and Warrick, R.A. (1986) The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change and Ecosystems, New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Figures 7.5 and 7.10 Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holder of these figures from Mintzer, I.M. (1992) 'National energy strategies and the greenhouse problem', in L.Rosen and R.Glasser (eds) Climate Change and Energy Policy, New York: American Institute of Physics.

Figure 7.7 Reprinted with permission from IPCC (1990) Climate Change, The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Eds. J.T.Houghton, G.I.Jenkins and J.J.Ephraums, Cambridge University Press, UK, 365 pp.

Figure 7.11 Reprinted with permission from Hengeveld, H.G. (1991) Understanding Atmospheric Change, SOE Report 91-2 Ottawa: Environment Canada.

Figure 7.13 Reprinted with permission from Schneider, S.H. and Mass, C. (1975) 'Volcanic dust, sunspots and temperature trends', Science 190:21 November, 741-6. Copyright 1975 by the AAAS.

Figure 8.1 Reprinted with permission from Park, C.C. (1991) 'Trans-frontier air pollution: some geographical issues' Geography 76:21-35. Copyright 1991, The Geographical Association.

Figure 8.2 Reprinted with permission from Henderson-Sellers, A. (1991) 'Global climate change: the difficulties of assessing impacts', Australian Geographical Studies 29:202-25.

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