Did The Spinning Machine From Richard Wright Cause Global Warming

As the United States became increasingly urbanized by the turn of the nineteenth century, problems of urban pollution became widespread. Smokestack industries polluted the atmosphere, garbage piled up on city streets, the noise from cars, trucks, trains, and boats rent the air, and domestic and industrial effluents caused odors and illnesses. Minority populations experienced these effects on a larger scale than did white communities, which were able to marshal legislators and technologists to create solutions. Efforts to stave off the worst effects of urban pollution met with marginal success at first, but increased over time. The greatest successes, however, would come during the era of environmentalism in the latter half of the twentieth century.

Notes

1. Andrew Carnegie, Triumphant Democracy (New York: Scribner's, 1886), 1, as quoted in Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America, 1776-1900, by John F. Kasson (1976), 183.

3. Richard Wright, American Hunger (New York: Harper and Row, 1944), 1-3.

4. Martin V. Melosi, The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 3-4.

5. Thomas R. Detwyler and Melvin G. Marcus, eds., Urbanization and Environment: The Physical Geography of the City (Belmont, Calif.: Duxbury, 1972), 21, quoted in Melosi, The Sanitary City, 4.

6. Joel Tarr, The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective (Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 1996), xxx.

7. Martin Melosi, "Hazardous Waste and Environmental Liability: An Historical Perspective," Houston Law Review 25, no. 4 (July 1988): 741.

8. Rebecca Harding Davis, "Life in the Iron Mills," Atlantic Monthly (April 1861): 430-51, quotation at 430.

9. Milwaukee Sentinel, 10 November 1903, quoted in Dale Grinder, "The Battle for Clean Air: The Smoke Problem in Post-Civil War America," by Dale Grinder, in Pollution and Reform in American Cities, 1870-1930, ed. Martin Melosi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980), 87.

10. J. B. Stoner, "The 1ll Effects of Smoke on Health and Comfort," Military Surgeon 32 (1913): 373, quoted in Grinder, "The Battle for Clean Air," 86.

11. Frederick Upham Adams, in the Toledo Blade, 23 January 1906, quoted in Grinder, "The Battle for Clean Air," 95.

12. Suellen M. Hoy, "'Municipal Housekeeping': The Role of Women in Improving Urban Sanitation Practices, 1880-1917," in Melosi, ed., Pollution and Reform, 193-94.

13. Imogen B. Oakley, "The Protest Against Noise," Outlook 90 (17 October 1908), 351-55, quoted in "Toward an Environmental Perspective: The Anti-Noise Campaign, 1893-1932," by Raymond W. Smilor, in Melosi, ed., Pollution and Reform, 139.

14. Theodore Steinberg, Nature Incorporated: Industrialization and the Waters of New England (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 206.

16. Melosi, The Sanitary City, 1.

17. Kenneth T. Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 288.

19. Andrew Hurley, "The Social Biases of Environment in Gary, Indiana, 1945-1980," Environmental Review (Winter 1988): 19.

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  • Sandra
    Did the spinning machine from richard wright cause global warming?
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