Number of alternative fuel vehicles in use

Average annual percentage change

Fuel type

1995

1998

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004a

1995-2004

LPG

172,806

177,183

181,994

185,053

187,680

190,438

194,389

1.3%

CNG

50,218

78,782

100,750

111,851

120,839

132,988

143,742

12.4%

LNG

603

1,172

2,090

2,576

2,708

3,030

3,134

20.1%

M85

18,319

19,648

10,426

7,827

5,873

4,917

4,592

-14.3%

M100

386

200

0

0

0

0

0

-100.0%

E85b

1,527

12,788

87,570

100,303

120,951

133,776

146,195

66.0%

E95

136

14

4

0

0

0

0

-100.0%

Electricity

2,860

5,243

11,830

17,847

33,047

45,656

55,852

13.0%

Total

246,855

295,030

394,664

425,457

471,098

510,805

547,904

9.3%

"2004 data are based on plans or projections. bDoes not include flex-fuel vehicles.

"2004 data are based on plans or projections. bDoes not include flex-fuel vehicles.

source: Stacy C. Davis and Susan W. Diegel, "Table 6.1. Estimates of Alternative Fuel Vehicles in Use, 1995-2004," in Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Planning, Budget Formulation and Analysis, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC, December 2004, http://cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb24/Edition24_Chapter06.pdf (accessed August 4, 2005)

In his 2003 State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush announced the creation of the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative (HFI). This $1.2 billion program is designed to develop the technology needed for commercially viable hydrogen-powered fuel cells by the year 2020. Fuel cells designed for transportation vehicles and home/business use are to be developed. The HFI has three primary missions as part of its goals:

• Lower the cost of hydrogen production to make it cost effective with gasoline production by the year 2010

• Develop hydrogen fuel cells that provide the same vehicle range (at least three hundred miles of travel) as conventional gasoline fuel tanks

• Lower the cost of hydrogen fuel cells to be comparable in cost with internal combustion engines

The U.S. Department of Energy predicts that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will reach the mass consumer market in 2020.

advanced technology vehicles (hybrids). Many experts believe that the most feasible solution in the near future is to produce vehicles that use a combination of gasoline and one of the alternative fuel sources. These are called advanced technology vehicles or hybrid vehicles. Figure 2.15 depicts a hybrid automobile that relies on a small internal combustion engine and electricity (from batteries).

Table 2.8 provides information about the various hybrid vehicles for sale in the United States as of December 2004. Manufacturers continue research on hybrid cars, which they hope will eventually satisfy American tastes and pocketbooks and provide even greater fuel efficiency.

FIGURE 2.15

FIGURE 2.15

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