Karst Formation

Karst is a specialized topography where the land is shaped by water's dissolving action on carbonate bedrock, like limestone, dolomite, or marble. It is an example of a calcium and carbon cycle on a small scale. Karst development takes place over thousands of years and results in unique land and subsurface structures such as sinkholes, vertical tunnels, vanishing streams and springs, interconnected underground drainage systems, and caves.

Karst formation is called a carbon dioxide cascade. It takes place as rain falls through the air, grabbing and dissolving carbon dioxide as it goes. Weak carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed.

The mildly acidic water seeps into rock cracks or fissures where it starts to dissolve carbonate bedrock. This causes openings in the bedrock that get bigger until an underground drainage system begins to form, letting even more water come through. This speeds up the karst formation further. Over time, underground caves are carved out.

The top level of karst topography is called epikarst, which includes a crossing system of intersecting crevices and holes that gather and transfer surface water and minerals to the underground drainage system.

Survival Basics

Survival Basics

This is common knowledge that disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.

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