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Passion Blog Pro Review

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Passion Blog Pro Review Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Video Course
Author: Demetris Papadopoulos
Official Website: passionblogpro.com
Price: $47.00

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My Passion Blog Pro Review Review

Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

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Life Without Norm Entrepreneurs

When norm entrepreneurs are absent from the system, two types of macro patterns emerge in the simulations. Depending upon the noise levels in the system, the simulation exhibits a strict dichotomy between stability and volatility in the system. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 are typical runs without norm entrepreneurs. As the noise in the system increases the simulation switches from stable to volatile. Each figure reports the average predictions (group outcome) made in each round by the agent population over one thousand rounds. Each of these simulations was run with ten agents and a precision level of 5 percent. The only variable altered from run to run was the level of noise added to the average prediction. In Figure 4.2, the predictions reach a stable level relatively quickly as the agents arrive at the same rule. As the noise increases in figure 4.3, however, the agents are unable to come to agreement and thus the average predictions fluctuate wildly. Without norm entrepreneurs the agents'...

Reach of the Entrepreneur

While the above results are valuable, they are just the beginning. Just how robust are the effects of norm entrepreneurs found in these initial analyses Under what conditions do norm entrepreneurs have which effects To begin to answer these questions, I undertook sensitivity analysis on the model in order to assess the importance of entrepreneur reach.441 investigated the impact of limited reach the effects if the norm entrepreneur could not influence the whole population, but rather just a portion of it. For this analysis I let the reach of the entrepreneur vary (30-40 percent of the population, 40-50 percent, 50-60 percent, 60-70 percent, 70-80 percent, 80-90 percent, 90-100 percent) in order to check whether these changes made a significant impact on the mean number of rounds where a norm was present. Table 4.1 presents the results of this analysis. What we see is that even norm entrepreneurs with a very limited reach (as low as 30 percent of the population of agents) are able to...

Let the Entrepreneurs in

When it comes right down to it, the real forcing function will be entrepreneurial energy services firms who will get in between the utility and its customers. The increasing cost of electricity service, and, more importantly, the business cost of unreliable service, will widen the gap between utilities and ratepayers. These so-called energy management or demand side management firms will make the investment in the smart meters, and the energy efficient lighting, appliances, heaters, air conditioners, and other electric-consuming devices. They will then earn a return on their invested capital through what is known as a shared savings, or performance-based, contract. Once these firms prove the business model, utilities will likely acquire them and continue to dominate their service territories. Those who control the information control the outcome. Once those meters are installed, the race will be to see who best can capitalize on the data and information.

Environmentalism in an entrepreneurial age

In the course of the 1990s, as sustainable development came to be placed on the international political agenda, other trends were also manifesting themselves in the disparate worlds of knowledge-making. On the one hand there has been a general trend towards transnational collaborations and policy-coordination, along with decreasing direct national state control. In many European countries, there have been significant reductions in state funding for research and development activities and increased support to programs and initiatives within the European Union. On the other hand there has also been a growing commercialization and privatization of research and development activities, and a concomitant encouragement and fostering of entrepreneurship in universities, government ministries, and local governments. These developments have been characterized as a new, externally determined mode of knowledge production, which transcends traditional disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and...

Life with Norm Entrepreneurs

In contrast to the dichotomous patterns exhibited when the system lacks norm entrepreneurs, their presence creates different patterns. First, norm entrepreneurs are able to influence which rule rises to dominant status when the noise precision levels would otherwise lead to stability around Population Predictions Low Noise, Entrepreneur Present the dominant rule. See Figure 4.4 for a demonstration of this effect. The simulation depicted in Figure 4.4 is similarly configured to the simulation run in Figure 4.2, except that a norm entrepreneur is now present. The impact of the norm entrepreneur was significant. The agents still crystallized around a single rule for the majority of the simulation, but instead of the dominant rule 4, the agents crystallized around rule 1 (which returns a prediction between 0 and 10) after the suggestion of the norm entrepreneur. The norm entrepreneur was able to alter the manner in which the agent population crystallized around a single rule a rule that...


The verbal model hypothesizes that a norm entrepreneur suggested a change in appropriate understandings of participation requirements during the ozone depletion negotiations. A norm entrepreneur advocated for universal participation. Further, the verbal model claims that some states add this suggestion to their rule model they change their understanding of what a global response to ozone depletion requires. This adding may occur through varied processes persuasion, socialization, or coercion. In states, the adding is a domestic political process. The model also claims that such a change in the agents arises through adaptation. States that currently understand ozone depletion to require North-only participation negatively evaluate their internal rule models. Weakened rules are subject to change. As the agents change their internal models, they will change their behavior participating if they are not already participating (most of the South before 1987) or calling for universal...

Conclusiontheory Models And Empirics

In this second stage of assessing the norms-based approach to GG, I have formalized the norm life cycle and demonstrated how the logic inherent in that framework plays out focusing specifically on the role of norm entrepreneurs in catalyzing norm emergence and change. The modeling exercises accomplished two crucial goals. of norm emergence and evolution. Thus, the expectations derived from the framework are valid (i.e., a norm entrepreneur can catalyze intersubjective agreement). The norms-based argument is thus at the very least reasonable given the assumptions inherent within it. The logic that built the verbal framework entails norm emergence and evolution . . . under certain conditions. Second, the modeling exercises provide further insight on the dynamics of social norms important for structuring the empirical analysis of stage three. The model results describe the boundary conditions for norm emergence and evolution through entrepreneurship. Important factors in explaining the...

The Organization Of A Change Program

While the above project is organized in order to transform the existing system of agriculture, some authors argue that we need to change the location of agriculture and the organization of farming and food distribution. Following this line of argument, we ought to increase the number of urban farms and farms around cities and to a larger extent eat locally grown crops. If we would like to go through with this type of project, the organization of it would look more like the transformation program concerning the sector of the built environment above. In such a project the subprojects would probably have to deal with regulations and incentives, the development of materials and machinery for large-scale urban farming and the training of homeowners and would-be agricultural entrepreneurs in the practices of this type of farming.

Fuel and Engine Technologies Visonary Alternatives

When the plans for some such technologies have been made, it can be determined whether they represent opportunities for the short or long term. Needless to say, the time to market this type of technology ought to be an important factor to weigh in the decision about government funding or support. In a market economy it will always be possible for an inventor, entrepreneur or a company to invest as much money and resources as they wish in a project that they believe in. At the level of society, and regarding projects that qualify for a planned program, the selection, in order to reduce the number of projects and the volume of investment, needs to be as strict as it would have been in any company with a management that manages toward the return on investment of its shareholders. This means that the planned project needs to be run toward the goal of supplying the energy needs of the future through the development of as few new technologies as possible.

Putting the Commons into Community

We don't need oil, announced the confidence-exuding, silver-haired executive as he walked into a basement meeting room of the Capitol to greet a group of congressmen. He looked like a successful software entrepreneur, wearing a soft cashmere sweater, dark slacks, and a cell phone on his belt, the way gunslingers wore their Colt 45s. We don't need hydrogen, he told us. We don't need new car and engine designs. We don't need new distribution systems or waiting ten years to solve this problem. Most importantly, we don't need oil. We need ethanol. But the truth is that no matter what policy Congress adopts, without the energy and insight of entrepreneurs like Khosla, we will accomplish little. Sometimes the private sector has to inspire us in Congress. Government can't do it alone.

From traditions to movements

As activists and politicians, even as technicians and entrepreneurs, they must think their efforts worthwhile, they must believe they will win. In these roles energy and initiative are essential, and it is optimism, not any depressive realism, that opens paths to profit and advantage. Yet greens are lost without their darker suspicions It is a movement commonplace that political diversity is crucial, that radicals back up pragmatists, stiffening their spines, and that the two groups combine into a stronger force than either could muster alone. (Athanasiou 1996 104)

Position of the International Energy Agency IEA

Of special interest is the position of the IEA, described in The Economist magazine as 'a think-tank funded by power-hungry countries'.33 This Paris-based OECD affiliate provides analysis and advice to its 16 member countries, which include most OECD countries. In the 1004 version of its influential World Energy Outlook, the IEA had argued that 1004's high prices (see Figure 3.9 below) were 'unsustainable' and that 'market fundamentals will drive them down in the next two years'.34 In the 1006 version, the IEA changed tack and used the term 'unsustainable' to describe its own business-as-usual (reference) projection of oil consumption. The reason given was that that sufficient supply is unlikely to be available because of 'under-investment, environmental catastrophe or sudden supply interruption'.35 The reference projection was now considered unsustainable even though it had been lowered from the 1004 version.

The evolutionary significance of mass extinctions

Van Valen has a specialist knowledge of fossil mammals. The high rate of diversification and evolutionary turnover in mammals, which makes them, like ammonites, valuable biostratigraphic indicators, is likely to be the result of a variety of factors, such as strong competitive interactions leading to specialization in feeding methods, limitations on food supply, high mobility and use of energy, interspecies aggression, and territoriality. Such factors will conspire to lower the 'resource threshold' that is needed to prevent extinction, as compared with other animals. Although the Red Queen model might well apply to mammals, there are doubts about its more general validity. Thus, in sharp contrast to mammals, the bivalves, that is, clams and oysters, are nearly all sea-bed suspension feeders which mind their own business, are characterized by weak interactions with other species, exhibit primitive inflexible behaviour, have an uncrowded, largely sedentary, mode of life, and have...

The Unlimited Resource

Increasing poor people's freedom of choice and action to shape their own lives is critical to achieving development outcomes because it taps into their natural energy and incentive. World Bank research on this topic has dramatically expanded theoretical and practical approaches to understanding and measuring empowerment. It requires the poor to build their individual assets (material, financial) as well as their capabilities (human, social, psychological, political). The poor also require greater collective assets and capabilities, as these provide security, preserve culture, provide meaning, protect the local environment, and expand voice and power. Particularly critical is the role of collective organizations and social movements. Informed by these concepts, efforts to stimulate community-driven development are showing promise in overcoming some key shortcomings of early efforts at community-based development.16 A leading example is the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA), a...

What are your thoughts on Global Warming Is it real What should we do about it

Phillip Howells, Self-Employed The concept that we do have alternatives to oil will finally take hold. This will open doors for solutions that have not even been conceived yet. This shift from the question 'Is it viable' to 'This is doable, now lets look at what really is viable', will spur a huge invention cycle and a wave of entrepreneurial ventures.

What do we not know about migrants

In terms of the performance of migrants in the urban labour market, existing studies highlight discrimination against migrants who are employed predominantly in low-income and 'three-Ds' (dirty, dangerous and demeaning) jobs, with longer working hours and much lower earnings than their urban counterparts (Zhao 1999 Meng and Zhang 2001). Using data from Shanghai, Meng (2001) studies employment choices and finds that individuals with more human capital choose to be self-employed rather than being employed by others. As important as it is for these studies to capture the situation at one particular point, the dynamics of migrants' labour-market performance can reveal the evolution of their economic status and shed light on important questions of changes in migrants' economic conditions and income mobility. Research in this area is, however, virtually non-existent due to the unavailability of longitudinal migration data.

The Pavley Act Californias Clean Cars Law of

Early in the twenty-first century, California turned to an even more entrepreneurial and transformational arena the enactment of rules and laws to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. California had led the world in reducing local air pollution. Now it was proposing to lead in reducing global pollution.

The governance challenge

Labour and entrepreneurial activity away from non-resource sectors such as manufacturing and agriculture, thereby stifling the development of those sectors. Not surprisingly, it has been shown that resource-rich countries have had lower economic growth rates than countries without these resources over the long term (Corden 1984 Sachs and Warner 1999, 2001).

Multinational oil companies

In the late 1990s, Shell and BP envisaged large markets for renewable energy in the future. The creation of Shell International Renewables in November 1997 was reportedly based on Shell's optimistic expectation that renewable energy will supply 5-10 per cent of the world's energy needs by 2020, which could perhaps rise to more than 50 per cent by mid-century (Knott 1999). In contrast, Exxon experts dismissed the potential for renewable energy, based on their own forecast that renewable energy will only reduce petrol consumption by no more than 5 per cent by 2020. As one Exxon interviewee put it bluntly 'We will run on gas in twenty years, you can't change that.' In the case of Exxon - as in the case of BP and Shell - the decision to invest or not invest in renewable energy was driven by entrepreneurial foresight. In the case of Exxon, its anticipation of future markets was additionally influenced by its individual entrepreneurial experience. In the wake of the 1970s oil crises, the...

CSR strategies in the oil and gas sector

The above discussion of theoretical perspectives can help to guide us in studying to what extent CSR is driven by stakeholder demands, institutions or entrepreneurial activity. The purpose of this inquiry is not to determine which perspective is correct - each perspective can add interesting insights rather, the purpose is to determine under what circumstances companies have acted in particular ways.

Limitations of environmental reporting

More serious than the publication of environmental reports is the fact that state-owned companies rarely pursue 'green' entrepreneurial opportunities, as we already identified in Chapter 2. Valerie Marcel's book on state-owned oil companies in the Middle East concluded that 'many producers lack an understanding of how they can benefit from proactive action on environmental fronts, notably on the climate change regime, emissions trading and energy efficiency programs' (Marcel and Mitchell 2005,159). In other words, there is relatively little understanding of the win-win outcomes of pursuing environmental improvements and technical innovations in this area. Furthermore, the example of Venezuela's PDVSA in Chapter 2 suggests that a state-owned company may reverse its environmental initiatives as a result of government policy. This raises the importance of appropriate government policy to encourage environmental improvements.

Oil companies from emerging economies

None the less, oil companies from emerging economies did not, by and large, conceive of social and environmental strategies as business opportunities, unlike Shell or BP. For instance, Petrobras's thermoelectric projects were driven by Brazilian Government pressures, while Kuwait Petroleum's environmental improvements across its refineries were driven by European environmental regulations, which imposed quality standards for petroleum products in the European Union. These reluctant investments were a passive reaction to changes in the external business environment, not entrepreneurial initiatives. Indeed, in contrast to the American and British multinational oil companies, there is little evidence of long-term planning in terms of social and environmental issues, and CSR appears to be generally less of a strategic tool. The most notable exception was Kuwait Petroleum's introduction of unleaded petrol in the European market in 1984, following a policy announcement of a plan to provide...

Austrian economics as an alternative perspective

Recent attempts to construct a multilevel theory for explaining CSR strategies focused mainly on stakeholder theory and institutional theory and were guided by the idea that social and environmental strategies are externally driven, with the role of managers confined largely to adapting to external demands (Aguilera et al. 2007 Campbell 2007). However, this exclusive emphasis on adaptation to external pressures fails to allow for active managerial choices about the direction of the social and environmental strategies and does not account for entrepreneurial opportunities arising from social and environmental issues. Insights from economics and strategic management suggest that the level of CSR strategy in a firm should be viewed as an investment decision and a means towards achieving a competitive advantage, in the same manner that any other investment decisions would be taken. However, current studies with an economic or strategic focus continue to regard stakeholder relationships as...

Conclusions on CSR strategies

Merely a reaction to external pressures. Rather, companies use CSR in order to gain competitive advantages in terms of obtaining preferential treatment by governments or in terms of entering new markets. Active entrepreneurship plays a role in formulating social and environmental strategies. Shell's and BP's investment in renewable energy cannot be explained through either external pressures or a theory of the firm the resource-based perspective. A company does not invest a billion dollars in order to react to external pressures or current demand alone. Likewise, the market did not communicate to Shell and BP an urgent need to invest in renewable energy, nor did these firms have unique capabilities to pursue a renewable energy strategy. Yet this type of investment can be readily explained from the Austrian perspective, which assumes that the key characteristic of a successful entrepreneur is the ability to make successful judgments about the future (Mises 1969 Rothbard 1962)....

Is institutionalisation inevitable and irreversible

This picture of organisation emphasises the importance of calculation by movement leaders (or entrepreneurs) who assess the best way of achieving specific goals by garnering resources and exploiting political opportunities. But maximising resources is not always the principal aim of EMOs. A 'brand positioning and optimisation' report prepared for the ACF by a market research company 'sought to assess its position in the marketplace relative to its competitors'. It included the recommendation that 'Primary qualities of the ideal environmental organisation include professionalism and working with industry and business' (quoted in Doyle 2000 207). There was no stress on representing green ideology. If the ACF and other groups had allowed themselves to be led by such considerations they would be behaving as economic actors and viewing their organisation principally as a business. However, it is not simply the nature of competition within the social movement industry that shapes the nature...

The Real Meaning Of Individualism

Even though the imagined rugged individualism of the American character includes a willingness to take risks, here too the standards for corporations are different. Despite the glowing corporate rhetoric about how society as a whole benefits from entrepreneurial risk-taking, the government covers much of the risk that the corporate sector faces.

HM the Clothing Retail Company

The company has argued that by including in its strategies actions that recognize and work towards improving peoples' quality of life and caring for the environment will have some positive impacts on their own business and consequently a significant effect on their long-term profitability. One key reason that explains why H&M adopts CSR is the consumers' increased interest about the production of the clothes they and their children wear. Also, CSR issues have become important in recruitment processes, as those in search of work are increasingly asking CSR-related questions. In Sweden, as in many other countries - large corporations have taken the lead in promoting and developing the concept of social responsibility primarily, as a consequence of the pressure that has been placed on them by the Swedish government, the media, and different interest groups. CSR is, however, not a nationally isolated idea. CSR is related to Swedish traditions and regulations, but it has also developed...

Structural Capital in Organizations

The development of structural capital in organizations is, according to my point of view, an amalgam of a number of different theoretical subjects, starting with organization theory, covering strategic planning, IT and operational efficiency. In a classic passage in The Wealth of Nations (1776), economist Adam Smith describes how the division of labor in a pin factory dramatically contributed to efficiency in pin manufacturing. This division of labor represents an early example of structural capital. By structuring the process and organizing work in a number of steps, the entrepreneur in this company created a structure that provided the company with a competitive advantage over companies that employed a less elaborate process.

The rise and fall of the California sardine empire


The California sardine fishery was composed of the aforementioned groups of fishermen, plant workers, and entrepreneurs. These three groups of people are in no way mutually exclusive. Some fishermen and their families were involved in all three activities. Others invested and fished or invested and worked. In the very beginning in San Francisco most of the fishermen were Italian (San Francisco Chronicle, 20 July 1885). As the fishery moved to southern California, Portuguese and Jugo-Slavs ('Austrian') sic fishermen predominated (Skogsberg, 1925). Fishermen from Oregon and Washington in the 1930s were mostly Scandinavian. The period of expansion and large landings covered 21 years from 1925 to 1946. With one exception during that period, these nationality groupings stayed roughly the same throughout the fishing communities. In the late 1920s and 1930s Japanese-American fishermen dominated fishing for sardine out of southern California (Higgins & Holmes, 1921). At the outbreak of World...

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

Second, simulation analysis provides me with a social laboratory where I can experiment with the processes contained within the NLC. These experiments point to further insights that enhance the case studies of the ozone depletion and climate change negotiations and they facilitate outlining the boundary conditions of the verbal framework. When will a norm entrepreneur be able to catalyze the emergence of norms Under what conditions will norms emerge Modeling the norm life cycle is a rigorous way to find answers to these questions. While the model developed below is abstract and not designed to simulate actual negotiations, it does test the verbal model in crucial ways. Most importantly it explores how norm entrepreneurs influence the connections between norms and actors. This chapter proceeds by first introducing the agent-based modeling (ABM) method. This is followed by a formal operationalization of the norm life cycle the Pick a Number model. I then present the results of the...

Diffusing the benefits of complementary currency niches

Initial indications are that diffusion should be successful, given official policy support of the time banking idea. Outlining the contours of the Third Way ideology which was highly influential to the UK's New Labour government, Giddens presents time banking as a model of innovative social entrepreneurship and governance by civil society, and argues that 'government should be prepared to contribute to such endeavours, as well as encourage other forms of bottom-up decision-making and local autonomy' (Giddens, 1998 84). The task of building sustainable communities demands investment, from government and from local residents and in both time and money, as Blair here asserts

Biomass projects in rural areas in the developing world

Linus Strategic Energy Solutions, an Indian company, are producing environmentally sustainable briquettes from agro waste suitable for use as a fuel in these industrial units. In addition to the reduction in costly and environmentally damaging fossil fuel use and the cash savings generated by the user, this cycle also has the potential to generate new sources of income for farmers supplying the biomass, new business opportunities for rural entrepreneurs processing and selling the briquettes and additional rural employment in the collection and processing of the agro waste.

Waterfront Growth Decline and Redevelopment in the Great Lakes Basin

Buildings as locations of cultural tourism 16 . Renewed interest in the private sector for water-oriented, high-end development has spurred construction of new mixed-use complexes 3,18 . People's attitudes toward coastal areas (they want them protected) and urban waterfronts (they want access to them) have changed as well 17 . Increased citizen activism seeking public spaces such as parks and boardwalks has also fueled competition for land. The urban center, and therefore the waterfront, is increasingly seen as a regional asset, a key part of regional economic success 19-21 . All these trends have increased the competition for waterside land between traditional port and trade functions and urban or ecological tourism, which bid up the demand on land, making it more profitable for redevelopment by urban entrepreneurs 3,22 . In light of all these trends, many city governments have recognized the need for plans to guide the transformation of the urban waterfront. While waterfronts have...

The Transportation and Market Revolutions

The commercial boom inspired dreams of a comprehensive national transportation system, and in 1808, Thomas Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin proposed a federally financed network of roads and canals to shorten the distances into the remote corners of the United States. 7 The War of 1812 and fears of a powerful central government stymied this grandiose plan. But when the war ended in 1815, an outburst of entrepreneurial zeal, technological ingenuity, and financing by state and local governments produced a series of transportation developments that transformed American life.

Attacking The Myth Of Individualism

The book concludes by looking at our ability as individual citizens to check the growing power of corporations. What can the individual do against a corporate media and a rigged electoral system in which money substitutes for votes As separate individuals, we can't do much. In creating the corporation, the state recognized that vast projects require vast forces and a scale of investment that far exceeds the capacity of the individual entrepreneur. In fighting the corporation, we must realize equally that no one individual can do much. We must instead work together in powerful blocks to create a sufficient force to defeat the immortal person of the corporation.

Discursive frameworks

Social Democrats led to a distinct tradition of the delegation of administrative tasks to regional or local government. Combined with the cooperative movement that relied on local entrepreneurship and educational institutions such as the People's High Schools, which aimed to provide both training in practical skills for young people in the countryside and to offer opportunities to participate in political decision-making, the Danish style of decentralized administration has helped to shape a populist political tradition that has been extremely important in recent decades, perhaps especially in regard to environmental issues. Both images helped to give nature a place in the national identity, and protection of nature an importance in the industrialization process. But they provided those who would protect nature with rather different kinds of argument to justify their activities (see Fox 1985). The romantic, or pastoral, image led to ideas of tending and cultivating the natural...

Do Polluters Pay Under Grandfathering

Another example to explain why a producer must pass on the value of allowances as costs to consumers is the analogy between labor and emission rights (Woerdman et al., 2008). An entrepreneur does not have to pay for his own labor (in contrast with the labor of his employees to whom he must pay salaries), but he does employ his labor and he must pass on the value of this in the product price. The same can be said of emission rights. Although the entrepreneur does not have to pay for them, he does employ them to cover the emissions when producing output and therefore he must pass on the value of those rights in the product price. Consequently, if the entrepreneur were not allowed to pass on the opportunity costs of the grandfathered allowances, he would incur an economic loss.

The scientific revolution as a cultural process

Out of the new social movements of egalitarianism and political democracy, in association with regional, or local industrial development, emerged new scientific institutions and disciplines, new forms of knowledge-making. Adam Smith's science of political economy developed in the Scottish hinterland, and many of the first industrial applications of experimentation and mechanical philosophy took place in the provinces rather than in the capital cities, where the scientific academies were located (Musson and Robinson 1969). James Watt, the innovating improver of the steam engine, was a typical example of the new forms of knowledge-making. He worked as a technician at the university in Glasgow, making scientific instruments for use in academic research as well as taking part in a wide range of infrastructural projects. He brought into the world of scientific experimentation both artisanal knowledge and an entrepreneurial mentality that proved particularly valuable for the industrial...

Part One The Contextual Background

Chapter 1 takes up both the matter of factual setting and that of the legal situation confronting international oil and gas companies interested in engaging in petroleum development activities up to the time of Saddam Hussein's ouster and the beginning of a new political era in Iraq. By way of factual setting, both Iraqi oil and Iraqi natural gas reserves are reviewed and discussed, as well as the evolution of the industry and its involvement with foreign entrepreneurs, concessionaires, and developers. Additionally, the chapter provides basic information regarding both the main pipeline systems connecting Iraqi oil and gas fields to export terminals and background about the growth of the nation's refinery network. Concluding Chapter 1 is a survey of the status of legal relations with foreign oil and gas operators, spanning the time concerning the commencement of nationalization of the industry in the 1960s, rule under Saddam's regime, and

From movement intellectuals to network brokers

Institutionally circumscribed forms of brokerage. Social network analysts use the concept of brokerage to characterize the kinds of things that networkers do linking different actors together in common projects, promoting technical and social innovations, transferring ideas and inventions from one social sphere to another. Like the buying and selling that takes place on the stock market, or the fixing and negotiating of investments and loans, brokerage involves acquisition. In the world of green business the acquisition need not be purely monetary, but it tends to be directed to acquiring shares of a market, be it an academic, economic, or symbolic market. In the shift from activism to brokerage an entrepreneurial value system has been imported into the environmental movement, thus colonizing the ecological culture with a commercial mentality or mindset. In the research project on Public Engagement and Science and Technology Policy Options (PESTO), my colleagues and I identified four...

From Green Timber to Green Fuels

Harvesting, sawing, processing, and shipping lumber all over the world. For six generations of families, choker setters had gone into the woods, green chain pullers had gone into the mills, and small business owners had cashed their paychecks. It was a happy community of 41,000 souls living in the yearly hundred inches of rain that watered the forest canopy on which they depended. These are proud and hardworking people the Swedes of Hoquiam, the Scots of Aberdeen, and the Slavic community in Cosmopolis. They had built a place where work and family were enough. The town had a rough optimism and brawling temper not far removed from the timber camps. Labor was king and work was hard, but the trees would always be there. When the economic heart was ripped from this one-industry community, the visible disintegration of small businesses being shuttered and mills rusting away was bad enough. Far worse was the invisible pain of families whose breadwinner sat idle.

Implications For The Governance Of Ozone Depletion And Climate Change

However, even given its simplicity, it produces complex patterns and demonstrates that stylized norm entrepreneurs can play a role in forging intersubjective agreement and that they contribute to norm evolution as well as emergence. It shows in a general, formal way that norm entrepreneurs can alter the dynamics of a system of interacting agents sometimes catalyzing the emergence and evolution of norms. While not an empirical test of the NLC, the modeling exercises and results do confirm its plausibility, and entail important implications for theory building and empirical investigation. Effect of the Reach of the Norm Entrepreneur Effect of the Reach of the Norm Entrepreneur Entrepreneur and norm change when norm entrepreneurs provide the catalyzing influence that Finnemore and Sikkink envisioned. In that sense, the plausibility of the book's argument is established (this is akin to an existence proof in rational choice).46 However, what is interesting about...

Compatibility and Synergy

Moving from agents to structures, CAS provides a model of agent action. Internal rule models represent agents' subjective understandings of their context and they drive agent behavior. Emergence is the process through which agent actions and interactions combine to alter social structures. Universal participation emerged through a process of entrepreneurship and subsequent changes in states' internal rule models and behavior.

Attractiveness and Competitiveness of a Nation

Next to profit, labor climate is the most crucial factor in attracting foreign investment. Investors look for countries where labor is cheap, and where workers are hard-working, intelligent, and disciplined, with no industrial-wide unions and with as few strikes and walkouts as possible. Additional factors include a business-oriented culture, some form of work ethics, attitude toward thrift, desire for achievement either through education or through business success, propensity for entrepreneurship, and tendency for cooperation and harmonious relations with others (as opposed to tendency for strife).

Force the Leaders to Lead

Only government can implement existing technologies fast enough. So while corporations need to shoot all their efficiency and renewable energy bullets trying to reduce their own carbon footprint, it's most important that they use their own business as a club to batter legislators with advocacy, use their influence over customers to create a grassroots movement, and allocate advertising dollars to a climate campaign aimed at a broad audience. Individuals must do the same with our votes, our pens, and our feet we must literally storm the barricades in the

Cleveland Ohio United States

Key action areas under the sustainability system include buildings, energy, stormwater water quality, transportation, materials, education and policy, landscape, and the ecological environment. Although the Waterfront District Plan is relatively new, several key steps have been taken to implement various aspects of the five systems and their action agendas to include sustainable practices. For future buildings, the city adopted guidelines for green building standards and will encourage developers to use them. For energy, the city has partnered with an energy-focused non-profit organization and a regional entrepreneur to assess the feasibility for creating a wind-turbine facility offshore along the lakefront. A windmill has been placed atop the city's drinking water intake crib some three miles into the lake that is measuring wind speed and consistency for the next six months 52 . The goal will be to incorporate energy from the windmills into current city-owned energy generation...

Behavioral Self Control

backfire and cause the recipient to feel manipulated or nagged, depending on how the reinforcer is delivered. When one of Deborah's colleagues asked another to print memos on both sides of the paper, he received a nasty (one sided) note telling him to mind his own business

International Solid Waste Management

The international Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) compiles worldwide data, including environmental statistics, for its thirty member countries. The bar graphs on the next page compare the total amount of municipal waste generated annually and the annual amount of municipal waste generated per capita, respectively, by the United States and other selected OECD member countries in 1997. Per capita waste generation rates vary significantly by country factors contributing to such discrepancies may include individual lifestyle and national economic structure. Although individual national definitions may differ, for the purpose of analysis here, OECD regards municipal waste as waste collected by or on the order of municipalities, including that originating from households, commercial activities, office buildings, institutions such as school and government buildings, and small businesses.

Reforming Industrial Practice From Pariah to an Energy Star

Multinational companies have the internal resources to make such changes, but small businesses, local governments, and individuals often need help, incentives, and better information. However, opportunities to bring efforts like Dow's to scale for the nation as a whole have been hurt by a reduction in federal efforts. Appropriations for efficiency research were cut 17 percent in 2006. Some programs that could have helped the industry obtain efficiency were cut 30 percent. If we fail to invest in energy efficiency, We would be leaving a lot of energy on the table, says Peter Molinaro, vice president of Dow.22While business leadership is important, it is no substitute for public investment in research or regulations like efficiency standards that only government can provide. The impact of scaling back federal leadership on energy efficiency cascades through the economy in both wasted energy and missed business opportunities. Charles Bates is an Alabama engineer who has been perfecting a...

Civil Society And Its Representatives

Our position here is that the relationship between norms, interests and behaviour is more complex than the sociological institutionalists claim. They are profoundly cultural and integrated in human behaviour. We tend to follow Nadelmann (1990, 524), who holds that norms emerge and are promoted because they reflect both the economic and security interests and the moral interests and emotional dispositions of dominant members of international society. Consistency is not essential, and they also reflect historical factors. They are promoted by both states and transnational moral entrepreneurs who lobby governments and mobilize popular opinion and political support at home and abroad. The norms promoted in this manner are usually cosmopolitan in nature. That is, they relate not to the ways states treat each other but to the ways individuals are treated by both states and one another.

Case Study The Moral Discourse After Kyoto

In total, therefore, these activities could account for almost 50 per cent of Annex I parties' 1990 emissions. This might have been regarded as good news and as pointing in a promising direction for the further evolution of the regime, but it was condemned. From the perspective of economic efficiency alone, this constituted a significant block of emissions from which parties (or, more accurately, entrepreneurs acting within the borders of parties) could have identified least-cost means of mitigation. Such potential could have been seen as providing a basis for significant reductions in developing countries (paid for by Annex I parties) through the CDM. Some of this capacity could have been traded off to allow developing countries to increase their emissions, while the CDM provided the means for slowing this emissions growth below BAU, as all the while energy utilization plant in Annex I countries underwent inevitable 'churning' with the turnover of capital plant with time,...

Just sustainability in practice in US cities

Representative Program 1 The Green Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota The Phillips community is one of the most diverse neighborhoods in Minneapolis, and it has a long history of community activism. In the 1980s, the residents of Phillips organized an environmental justice campaign to resist the construction of a garbage transfer station in their community. The city cleared twenty-eight homes for the ten-acre site, but the construction of the project was eventually halted by the residents of the Phillips neighborhood who created the Green Institute to create sustainable business enterprises on the now-vacant site. The Green Institute is an entrepreneurial environmental organization creating jobs, improving the quality of life, and enhancing the urban environment in inner-city Minneapolis. It now operates three revenue-generating ventures designed to combine green industry with local economic development. First, in 1995, the ReUse Center was developed to sell scavenged building and...

The Case of Yasser Arafat

Rachel Ehrenfeld in her very informative book Funding Evil.3S Indeed, according to both 1990 CIA and 1994 British National Criminal Intelligence Services reports,39 Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is one of the largest drug-smuggling rings in the world, doing over a billion dollars per year of heroin traffic into Europe. The PLO also engages in bank robberies, arms trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, protection rackets, and many other scams. One of its favorites is car stealing and resale, an activity that it conducts on an industrial scale, with the primary victims being Palestinians. Arafat's wife, Suha, owns the factory that produces the required counterfeit license plates. As a result of such entrepreneurial activities, the PLO has socked away an estimated 10 to 14 billion in Switzerland.40

The Arrival of CSR in Sweden

Topic of social responsibility of business has a long root in Swedish society. The emergence of the industrial community in Sweden between the mid-seventeenth century and the mid-nineteenth century was a period in which Swedish corporations played a prominent role in the local community, contributing to the development of several social institutions, including the fire brigade, medical services, and schools. These social services evolved within the industrial communities and were provided at the expense of business proprietors and entrepreneurs (Berglund-Lake andDahlin 1999 Hellspong andLofgren 1994).

Why CSR Moving beyond the Business Case

CSR discussions in America have been traditionally and predominantly focused on the financial returns of CSR initiatives. While three decades of research suggests no clear-cut answer on a direct and unassailable link between profitability and CSR initiatives (Griffin, 1997 Margolis, 2001 Orlitzsky et al., 2003 Barnett, 2007), the range of corporate CSR initiatives continues to expand and penetrate deeper into organizational routines (Bies et al., 2007 Fort, 2007). The business case for the CSR question is becoming clouded by more nuanced, insightful questions such as Are CSR activities indications of good management for modern organizations (The Economist, 2005 Frooman, 1997) Are these initiatives in the best interest of the firm to avoid externalities and potentially egregious governmental action (Friedman, 1970 Jensen, 2001) and, Are there missed opportunities in the CSR initiatives for new organizations and new product markets for the innovative firm and entrepreneur, particularly...

Challenges of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation

A second important factor involves non-government institutions. Public initiatives must be raised. Also, the role of entrepreneurs cannot be ignored. Some local entrepreneurs who could manage the generation and distribution of electricity may as well sell it to others in a profitable way. The main purpose of non-government institutions' involvement is to motivate, train and assist the villager in how to implement and manage a DG system in their area.

Clean Coal and Nuclear Technologies

Because renewable technologies need further development, some experts argue that currently abundant fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear energy, may have to be relied on until better energy sources are available. The United States, for example, already uses coal to produce much of its electricity, and it has enough coal to last another 250 years. President Bush has proposed that more coal plants be built to reduce the country's reliance on foreign oil, but the problem is that coal is a fossil fuel that produces harmful emissions when burned. Entrepreneurs therefore are researching ways to produce a form of clean, emission-free coal. One of their ideas is coal gasification a way of chemically converting coal into a cleaner-burning natural gas by using steam and high pressure. Another idea currently being researched is carbon sequestration a method of capturing the carbon dioxide that is produced from burning the coal and burying it deep underground so that it does not escape into the...

Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address Climate Change

A lack of entrepreneurial skills, experience and spirit. Government-owned utilities and energy enterprises, which dominated the energy sector of many developing countries until recently, discouraged the development of small business. Decades of centrally planned economies did not nurture an entrepreneurial spirit or help develop the skills and experience for business.

Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiations the Case of Cayapas Mataje

One example of problems facing Ecuador's environmentally sensitive areas can be seen in the case of the Cayapas-Mataje region of Ecuador. In 1995 this area, located in the coastal province of Esmeraldas on the northern border with Colombia, was identified as a significant environmental resource and therefore eligible for protection. Environmental groups viewed the extension of reserve status to Cayapas-Mataje as one of the few remaining tools available to stop or delay the wholesale destruction of the remnants of the broader mangrove ecosystem that once existed along the entire Ecuadorian coast 45 . Several environmental groups active in the area had influence with then Vice-President Alberto Dahik and were successful in gaining his support for the extension of reserve status to this area, an action which would bring it into the national system of protected areas. The region supported a wide variety of wood resources as well as coastal territory and was being aggressively utilized by...

Role of the Government

Government plays a critical role in reducing the uncertainty created by lack of rules mentioned above. Government should provide a framework of clear-cut general rules for doing business, as well as resolving conflict in a free-market setting. It should not favor any industry by special subsidies, tariffs, quotas, or other non-tariffs barriers. Nevertheless, in its early phase of economic development, an LDC may protect infant and strategic industries to be developed based on resource endowments. Coordination failure created by externalities calls for government intervention to organize private entrepreneurs into investments that they might not otherwise have made. For instance, the Korean government masterminded early import-substitution projects in cement, fertilizers, oil refining, synthetic fibers, heavy machinery, chemicals, steel, and shipbuilding. The Taiwanese government initiated and financed the establishment of such industries as plastics, textiles, fibers, steel and...

Stimulating Chinese Innovation

While any number of problems could derail China as it barrels forward, we focus on what good might come out of stimulating innovation in China. Through sheer desperation, but also out of its entrepreneurial spirit, China is indeed developing innovative products and services. As the world becomes more globalized, these innovations should spread internationally. The challenge is to merge China's innovativeness with government leadership to create something different and better. The question is how to guide the storm of innovation and entrepreneurialism in a way that supports the public interest of the Chinese people and as China becomes more integrated into the larger world order the interests of the entire globe. world's most highly entrepreneurial economies. Rising affluence is leading to soaring motorization in a country that as recently as the mid-1990s relied almost exclusively on walking, biking, and bus for urban transport. China's auto industry and its cities are changing at...

Energy markets are not free

Utility regulatory commissions also effectively guarantee the financial return of centralized generation and its associated wires by including these investments in the 'rate base', on which utilities are guaranteed a profit. If sales of power do not materialize in amounts sufficient to provide the assured rate of return, commissioners simply raise rates in order to meet the targeted levels. Local generators, in contrast, enjoy no public guarantees, even though their dispersed plants can recycle the normally wasted heat, increase efficiency, cut pollutants and provide other public benefits. Power recycling entrepreneurs also face the risk that their manufacturer partner will cease or change operations and stop purchasing as much thermal energy, or will stop producing the expected amount of waste energy. In either case, the entrepreneur suffers reduced revenues and might not be able to pay back its investors and lenders. Environmental regulations, moreover, tilt the playing field...

Concerns and Showstoppers What Could Make It All Go Bust

For all the power and importance of entrepreneurs and private-sector capital, governments and policy profoundly shape the markets that sustain our businesses. Without good policy, these efforts as strong as they are could founder. fuels revolution already under way, to move beyond corn ethanol to cellulosic ethanol and to ensure that is done in a way that reduces the impact on our natural resources. Government alone cannot create the market it depends on the innovation and investment of scientists, farmers, and entrepreneurs but government is an essential partner in leveling the playing field for a new technology to overcome the barriers to entry and ensuring sustainable production. Markets alone will not bear the risks or higher initial prices that come with cellulosic ethanol or driving down carbon content, yet it is only by moving away from corn-based biofuels that we will realize the full potential of cellulosic to both reduce oil dependence and slow global warming. We need to...

And Now for the Good News

Of course, there is always room for true pioneers. Is there a recent graduate or entrepreneur out there who could revolutionize the industry by becoming the first true private utility that installs, owns, and operates microgrids (see Chapter 18). Such an entrepreneur could be to our industry its Bill Gates (Microsoft) or Sergey Brin and Larry Page (Google). Instead of trying to adapt an antiquated system designed for the socialized delivery of electricity to the masses (think mainframe computers), how about designing a modern system for 20 customers that meet the needs of the next 40 years

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The NLC CAS framework, as well as the Pick a Number Model, explains this transition in a very straightforward manner. The norm entrepreneur makes a suggestion. Agents accept it and add it to their rule models. The agents begin to exhibit new behavior (assuming that their current rule has recently performed poorly). If enough agents change their behavior a new norm emerges, altering the normative context. In the actual ozone depletion negotiations, the identity of the norm entrepreneur (Tolba UNEP) and the suggestion (universal participation) are both clear. However, moving from the suggestion to acceptance to new behavior is less straightforward in the empirical case.110 For the analysis of the emergence of universal participation, why the Southern states changed their behavior in some ways matters less than the fact of their changed behavior. However, for the NLC and its focus on an entrepreneur, it is crucial to observe how Tolba facilitated and catalyzed the change of behavior....

Storm of Controversy

In Washington, where former president John Quincy Adams was one of the few members of the House of Representatives interested in science, politicians of the era were easy prey to entrepreneurial inventors and engineers and pseudoscientists who were always angling for federal sponsorship of their schemes. It was a time when expeditions were organized to test the theory that there were holes in the poles that gave access to Earth's interior. James Espy was promoting the idea of setting forest fires in the West to bring rains to the East. As early as 1838, Henry was writing to Bache, who was traveling in Europe, about a most disgusting form of charlatanism that led the Senate committee on naval affairs to hail certain ridiculous and puerile claims about terrestrial magnetism. Henry called the congressional report that described the claims as worthy of public confidence and congressional patronage a disgrace to the

Characterizing profound mobility change along four dimensions

Assessing the significance of a transport revolution using four dimensions of change facilitates understanding of what the revolution means for human society. The dimensions are scale (people and freight move farther), speed, efficiency (usually fuel efficiency but sometimes other kinds) and accessibility (best thought of in terms of who cannot use the system, whether for physical, financial or other reasons). Over the course of history these key attributes have been valued differently. The attraction of doing better along one or more of these dimensions has inspired visionaries, entrepreneurs and leaders to develop new transport options that have persuaded large numbers of people to change the ways in which they have travelled or shipped goods.

Tackling the development challenge

Community investment by focus area Community Community Entrepreneurs Local health education SMEs sourcing Some companies go beyond supporting particular health or education projects by attempting to foster the long-term social and economic development of their local communities. This is particularly evident in initiatives to support income-generating projects. On the one hand, companies provide skills training and advice to local entrepreneurs and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which in turn can generate local income and jobs. Indeed, all ten companies from developed economies support such initiatives, and half of the companies from emerging economies do so. On the other hand, some companies actively pursue 'local sourcing', which means increasing the purchase of local products for their operations (from foodstuffs to oil equipment). Seven out of ten companies from developed economies and two emerging market companies had a policy on increasing local inputs, although some of...

Trends in Occupational Health

Signs informing workers of their rights deal with inspectors correct citations for unsafe conditions and keep records of all of this. The outcry from industry against OSHA was long and hard. Many industrial groups felt that the law and the new federal agency were a terrible blow to their sovereignty and independence, not to mention their ability to function. OSHA became one of the favorite targets of right-wing antiregulatory movements of the 1980s. Small businesses, which are not exempt from OSHA rules, claimed that just doing all the paperwork involved in OSHA compliance was so costly as to make the difference between profit and loss. In fact some of the regulations (as is true for many regulations) seemed absurd and arbitrary.

The USA formulates its strategy on the issue of climate change

Today we have a clear responsibility and a golden opportunity to conquer one of the most important challenges of the 21st century - the challenge of climate change - with an environmentally sound and economically strong strategy, to achieve meaningful reductions of greenhouse gases in the United States and throughout the industrialized and the developing world. It is a strategy that, if properly implemented, will create a wealth of new opportunities for entrepreneurs at home, uphold our leadership abroad, and harness the power of free markets to free our planet from an unacceptable risk a strategy as consistent with out commitment to reject false choices . . .

Preparing and Protecting American Families from the Onslaught of Catastrophe

ProtectingAmerica.org is committed to finding better ways to prepare for and protect American families from the devastation caused by natural catastrophes. I co-chair the organization with James Lee Witt, the former director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and our coalition members include the American Red Cross, other first responder groups, emergency management officials, insurers, municipalities, small businesses, Fortune 100 companies and private citizens. The membership is broad and diverse and includes members from virtually every state in the nation.

A map of contemporary science

From the organizational standpoint, the Genome Project can be viewed as in some way equivalent to the Manhattan Project for physics, a 'quantum leap' from a discipline of middling importance to one which epitomizes the new 'big science' a 'big science' as a collective endeavour carried forward by huge and complex organizations far in excess of Price's predictions and which is set to redefine the nature itself of the scientific profession - the articles which reported the results of mapping the human genome in the journals Nature and Science were signed respectively by 275 and 250 authors - but, above all, a 'big science' which ousts the old 'military-industrial' complex and replaces it with a new 'academic-industrial-governmental' complex (Etzkowitz and Webster, 1995) in which venture capitalists set the research agenda, researchers act as entrepreneurs, and politicians confusedly mediate between the two sides.

Gaining perspective on major mobility changes

1 From the launch of railway service, we see that revolutions can have a high degree of unpredictability in their immediate outcomes. Entrepreneurs in the UK expected to create a major change in how freight moved, but the first railways turned out to yield a major change in how people moved. This unpredictability extended to the adaptation of horse-drawn coaches and barges, which quickly reconfigured to provide alternative services (e.g. local feeder service by horse coaches). Anticipating the effects of a revolution may be quite challenging. The divergence between 'conventional wisdom' and unexpected results of change offers a signal that the change was indeed revolutionary.

Knight On Turnover And Job Security

Consideration of the risk of unemployment brings us back to Frank Knight's idea that profit is a reward for successful risk-bearing. Knight seems to have had a relatively restrictive idea of risk bearing. His prototypical risk-bearing entrepreneur risks funds by purchasing labor and materials. Workers' stakes are, in some sense, much higher. As I discussed in the sections on workers' safety in Chapter 3, far too many people risk their own physical well-being on the job. Ford's situation may have been more drastic than that of other companies, but it was not unique. As a result, the major corporations at the time were concerned with taking measures to increase workers' attachment to their jobs. Given this atmosphere, I am not surprised that Frank Knight never brought out job insecurity as a risk. Instead, turnover must have appeared more like a serious risk for the entrepreneur.

Food accessibility Overall strategy for food accessibility

During the crisis, the state maintained this priority for ensuring food accessibility. In reviewing the food security situation in the late 1990s, Castro explained, 'The priority assigned to this issue, together with centralized planning, has made it possible to devote adequate attention to the objectives of satisfying the food needs of the population ' (Castro, 1996). The two strategies adopted to promote food accessibility were the diversification of food distribution channels, and the increase and diversification of sources of income available for the population. New sources of income included self-employment, hard currency remittances from relatives abroad, state labour incentive schemes and the tourist industry. The percentage of the population with access to hard currency rose from 8 per cent in 1993 to 40-50 per cent by 1996 (Castro, 1996). Despite this, there was a recognized need for assistance by those without sufficient income or hard currency to obtain certain food...

Creation of free farmers markets and private food businesses

In order to further reduce the power of the black market, and also to stimulate production and increase efficiency, to complement the ration, and to increase access to fresh produce, legislation was passed in September 1994 to permit 'free' farmers' markets for the sale of food surplus to the ration. Within two weeks, 121 such markets had been established all over the country, organized by MINCIN. The speed of execution showed what was possible when political will aligned with farmers' needs, and also gave an indication of the latent capacity and entrepreneurship of farmers in responding to better market opportunities. Another new option was permission for the private sector to sell prepared foods. Up to that time, the state had taken this role, but the majority of its establishments had disappeared. By August 1995, 36,864 licences had been granted for private food businesses (Granma, 1995). Again, a substantial degree of control and regulation was implemented, with, for example, a...

An environmental social science

And so, as has been the case in many other social-problem areas, environmental social science has become a debating, or, even worse, a mutual-indifference society, filled with divergent and fragmented (mis)understandings. The problem is not so much that the analyses are unconvincing it is rather that they are, for the most part, incommensurable and competitive, and are therefore difficult to combine in any meaningful way. The analyst is all too often forced to choose a particular terminology and theoretical approach that tends to exclude the others, at the same time as research attention, according to the methodological precepts of academic life, is customarily confined to one particular aspect of reality, or one particular sector. The differences in understanding are thus in need of synthesis and integration, and a much more active process of dialog and communication than is encouraged by the increasingly competitive and entrepreneurial value system of the academic culture as it has...

A conservationists perspective on the voluntary carbon markets Can they help us overcome inertia

Climate change is such a dire problem that if we are to tackle it, optimism, entrepreneurial innovation, steadfast conviction and systematic changes in global social and economic infrastructure must be combined in amounts never before orchestrated. We need the visionary oversight of policy makers, the innovation of the private sector and the hope and conviction of all global citizens. In addition to opening up carbon finance to REDD, voluntary markets also have a unique role to play in heightening public awareness of climate change, its threats and its solutions. The world needs action and commitment - in other words, sacrifice - from citizens on a scale not experienced in many decades, if ever. Citizens innately understand the significant value of forests and success stories in the voluntary markets help people understand what happens 'there' - in other parts of the world - is felt 'everywhere'. The voluntary markets, when coupled with strict regulation, can help drive the early...

From critique to resistance

As a modest contribution to the making of a green public sphere - the resilient green politics that Torgerson and so many others are seeking to foster on the theoretical level - I will consider the dilemmas of resistance in terms of cognitive praxis, so that we may better be able to distinguish the emerging culture from the residual cultural formations that threaten to capture or contain it. While the dominant culture with its commercialism and its acquisitive values tries to turn us all into salesmen and entrepreneurs, the residual cultural formations try to pull us back into older ways of practice and thought that are no longer relevant. We need to distinguish between the innovative mobilization of traditions and the reactionary fundamentalism of traditionalist belief. The use of traditions is always selective and requires, like the rest of social action, that we become conscious of our criteria of selection and reflective about our processes of knowledge-making. In what follows I...

Health and Energy Poverty

The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency in the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been tasked with increasing the participation of poor rural women in integrated approaches to cooking and health. Equal access to credit and training is essential to ensure that clean energy and electricity supplies are available for women's domestic tasks and micro-enterprise activities. Micro-credit for women is still less widely available than in Bangladesh and Nepal, for example. The Indian Working Women's Forum is trying to change this and disbursed Rs 138 million ( 3.4 million) to women entrepreneurs in its 14 branches in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh between April 2005 and March 2006.

Cape Wind A Case Study in the Politics of Technology Choice

Cape Wind is a proposed commercial venture to generate electricity from 130 wind turbines mounted in a small area of Nantucket Sound in Massachusetts, USA. The project is generally supported by the environmentalist movement. However, its opponents have also based their case on environmental values, arguing that it would desecrate an area of great natural beauty. Proponents argue that it is no longer possible to preserve nature through inaction if we are to slow climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions, nature must be altered in order to be saved. The controversy is being settled through elite conflict, between the corporate entrepreneur behind Cape Wind on one hand, and several millionaire residents of the South Shore of Cape Cod on the other, with little voice for the concerned public. This paper describes the conflict to date, and attempts to show how it might be handled better through a more participatory process, and through an orientation toward problem solving, rather than...

Table Wind Power Stocks

Range from the world 's 1 argest power companies, like Spanish utilities Iberdrola and Acciona and America 's FPL, all the way down to single-farm entrepreneurs. And new entrants are pouring in as quickly as land can be leased and turbines delivered. Then there are the component makers that supply the industry with everything from carbon fiber for turbine blades, to specialized electronics, to information management services. Here again, new companies are forming and private firms are going public, so the supply of interesting, not-yet-widely followed wind power stocks will continue to grow for years (see Table 5.1).

Evolution and assessment of GCVs

Two possible pathways towards implementation of a GCV-based landtransport system are these one is via the plug-in hybrid car described above. Extensive operation of such vehicles could lead drivers to want more use of their electric motors. To facilitate this, governments or entrepreneurs could provide means of powering them along major routes, accessible by appropriately equipped vehicles while in motion. When such en-route powering is sufficiently extensive, EVs with only batteries and retractable connectors could prevail over plug-in hybrids. As the grid-connection system expands, the need for off-grid movement would decline. Roads could be supplemented and even replaced by lower-cost guideway infrastructure. At the same time, vehicles would evolve to move only on the guideways. They would be as light as possible and, where appropriate, be assembled into trains. They would comprise PRT.

What Action Is Vital To Implement Fusionhydrogen

Independent of the environmental advantages, the implementation of the Fusion-Hydrogen energy system will be profoundly beneficial to the economies of the participating nation or group of nations. The economist Joseph Schumpeter 279 reasons that in perfect competition, the circular flow of money stagnates and there is no progress and no profits beyond the salaries of the workers and managers. This leads to a static economy. He makes convincing arguments that the entrepreneur is the driving force of the expanding economy. The implementation of Fusion-Hydrogen will cause a burgeoning of entrepreneurial activity. This activity will lift the economy of the whole world.

New Business and Manufacturing Approaches

Known as localized modularization and open modular manufacturing, this method is more flexible and decentralized than normal manufac-turing.46 Designers, suppliers, and manufacturers organize themselves into a dynamic and entrepreneurial network. Instead of dictating every detail of every part ordered from suppliers, as do the major automakers, in China these small manufacturers instead act as assemblers and specify only the important features, like size and weight. Suppliers are free to design and develop parts independently and thus are able to work with multiple firms. This industry structure typically results in increased competition and lower costs.

Britains railway revolution of to

The considerable growth of freight transport made conditions ideal for developing new transport capacity. Between 1820 and 1825, the number of ocean-going vessels docking annually at Liverpool rose from 4746 to 10,837, with a commensurate increase in the weight of goods shipped.4 Henry Booth, one of the entrepreneurs behind the ensuing railway revolution, characterized the Liverpool to Manchester mobility needs as ripe for a breakthrough. In 1824, 409,670 bags of American cotton arrived in Liverpool, much of it destined for Manchester's textile factories. The wealth generated by industrial development and colonial trade had spurred population growth in both cities, with Liverpool counting 135,000 inhabitants and Manchester 150,000 in 1824.5 Each day in

Power Carried Over From Saddamera Measures

34 The history of IPC is quite interesting. It was originally incorporated as the African and Eastern Concessions Limited in 1911. In 1912 it became the Turkish Petroleum Company Limited. As a result of the 1920 San Remo Oil Agreement between the major powers in the wake of World War I and the division of the Ottoman Empire, shareholding in the TPC was assigned as 47.5 in the Anglo-Persian Oil Company Limited, which became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and, ultimately, BP, 22.5 in Shell, 25 in Compagnie Francaise de Petroles, which ultimately became Total, and a 5 stake in the Armenian-born petroleum entrepreneur C. S. Gulbenkian, the mastermind behind most Middle East oil deals. The so-called Red Line Agreement of 1928 reassigned this shareholding allocation, allowing the seven U.S. majors to gain a 23.7 share in the company. A further reassignment occurred in 1948. In 1929, TPC's name was changed to IPC. See www.archiveshub.ac.uk news 0300ipc html (accessed June 10, 2008). See also...

The Political Ecology of Transforming Yields

Political ecology therefore grounds our understanding of the wealth needed to support human culture directly in the functioning of ecosystems. As such it links (1) an understanding of resources, (2) the technologies capable of accessing those resources, (3) the transformation of those resources into wealth and power, and (4) the role of capital accumulation in driving some entrepreneurs to seek new technologies in order to achieve yet higher yields. Political ecology helps focus our attention on issues of physical potential, political economic impact, and moral significance.

The movements of the interwar years

Of particular significance for the articulation of a technocratic belief system were the institutional economists Thorstein Veblen and Joseph Schumpeter, both of whom developed economic theories which stressed the central role of technological innovation in the modern industrial economy. For Veblen and Schumpeter, it was the rules of behavior, the legal and organizational structures that govern economic relations - what have come to be called institutions - that were of central importance. Where Marx had emphasized the means of production, giving a role for the state and for planning and for a broader social steering of technology, Veblen and Schumpeter focused attention on the institutional relations of production and on the entrepreneurs who were seen as the embodiment of instrumental rationality. Veblen's writings from the early 1920s, The Engineers and the Price System (1921) and Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise (1923) provided a view of technology's role in economic...

Building On Successful Experience

The GHG markets can be expected to take off and follow a similar rate of acceleration as the SO2 and NOx markets experienced in the U.S. This is because there is more at stake and because the European market can draw on the U.S. experience. In addition, the GHG markets can also draw on the experience and the talented pool of people that are available in the financial community and the energy trading community. The U.S. is still well positioned to lead on environmental financial market development with its entrepreneurial culture, risk capital, and knowledge base in trading. Moreover, U.S. multinational companies active in Europe are now in the vice of dual environmental standards, i.e., one for Europe and one for the U.S. This is an untenable position for corporate America.

Box Two types of values

Of certain quantitative goals, actually living up to a set of values may be felt to be counterproductive. For instance, if a manager is measured by the goal of achieving maximum revenue and profit, it may be seen as counterproductive to take goods back that have already been sold to customers. In the influential management book by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman In Search of Excellence, which was published in 1981, the authors identified attention to customers as one trait that is related to excellence, but the authors also recognized that this, at the time, was an unusual trait in companies. What they did recognize was that companies that made an effort to provide better service to customers tended to become more profitable and grow faster than their competitors. In a later book Built to Last, James Collins and Jerry Porras identified cultlike cultures as one of the traits of the companies that showed sustainable growth and profitability, and they recognized that successful...

Scaling Up Local Successes

One of the greatest challenges for development organizations is taking a success that is working locally and translating it to the regional or national level. This principally involves understanding why something worked in a particular place and time and then determining how those lessons can be applied elsewhere. In some cases, expansion depends on a quantum leap of investment in others, it may depend more on removing barriers to entrepreneurial activity or making government agencies more transparent and accountable. Numerous approaches to scaling up successful programs exist. (See Box 12-4.)28

Getting Rid Of The Streetcars And Remaking The Cities

Around the big three automobile manufacturers - General Motors, Ford and Chrysler - and the few remaining smaller manufacturers, such as American Motors Corporation and Studebaker-Packard, there were about 3,000 companies supplying them with vehicle parts. The motor industry was also the principal market for US steel producers. At the other end of the commercial spectrum there were thousands of small businesses involved in automobile retailing, gasoline service stations, repair shops and breakdown recovery. We must also acknowledge the large service sector which developed out of the motorisation boom - out-of-town shopping malls, drive-in cinemas, motels and tourist attractions. Indeed, the last-named 'industry' was one which was to be of enormous cultural significance to Americans. With an automobile they could 'see America'. Business ownership of heavy trucks also increased. Between 1950 and 1960, the volume of intercity freight carried by truck rose from 173 billion to almost 300...

Western Values and the New World

And enhancing national political and military strength. Government programs subsidized the infrastructure needed to support modern forms of agriculture, resource extraction, industry and commerce, and helped establish new settlements to accommodate an expanding population and integrate new lands into the national economic, political and social systems. Policies supporting this social paradigm included wars against and forced resettlement of indigenous peoples, the Homestead Act of 1862, and large grants of public lands to private entrepreneurs as incentives for building railroads. Diversions from this strategy, when they occurred, were not aimed at basic cultural or ideological changes, but rather at either conserving valuable natural resources from utter depletion or preserving charismatic landscapes and creatures from destruction. Conservation strategies might include the replacement of logged-out forests with plantations of rapidly growing species to insure steady supplies of wood...

Solutions For The Appalachian Region

Solar power is feasible for homes and small businesses, and there is potential to develop wind energy, though siting of wind installations must protect the ecological and historical values of the region. Other options include geothermal systems, which are increasingly being used for schools, government buildings, and homes.

Needed Policy Directions

While Chinese mobility isn't yet fixated on cars, except maybe in Beijing, changes are afoot. An enlightened car policy is key. Stronger metropolitan institutions are needed to protect the environment, manage land development, and provide transit services in such a way as to slow the motorization trend. Policymakers must assure that those cars that do populate the city are smaller and more environmentally benign. And China's increasingly entrepreneurial and innovative culture must lead to new technologies and new practices that thrive at home and could be exported abroad.

Building bridges making spaces

In the intervening years, the conditions for such interaction have changed dramatically, as environmental movements have become differentiated and subdivided, and as activism has become more and more a business like any other. In addition, universities throughout the world have grown ever more commercialized, and the academic way of life has come to be strongly colored by the acquisitive and highly competitive values of the marketplace. Academics are more or less required to become entrepreneurs if they are to be successful in their careers they must seek funds and opportunities for research as well as making direct and indirect connections with business firms. There is nothing intrinsically wrong with opening universities to the commercial marketplace so long as opportunities remain for other kinds of activity. But in many countries the space for critical reflection is getting smaller and, if it exists at all, it is seldom found at universities. Universities have traditionally prided...

The Organization Of A Transportation Change Program

In order for a change program to be successful, the organization would also need to include competence in the fields of change management and entrepreneurship. This is because all the products, components, materials and services that are necessary to go through with the transformation do not exist. Instead, new systems and parts of systems will need to be developed, sometimes from scratch, sometimes based on existing solutions and technology. Below, as in figure 18.2, is shown an idea of an organization for a transformation program for a part of the transportation sector. In such a project new business development and entrepreneurship need to take a prominent role, because of the need to develop new components, systems and technologies and rapidly commercialize them on a large scale.

Growing voluntary markets in a regulated world

Tor must continually search for new ways to unlock creativity and entrepreneur-ship to address climate change quickly. Governments need to enact climate legislation, but they must also provide incentives to help speed the adoption of new lower-emissions technologies and activities. Businesses are quickly learning how they can become climate friendly while turning a profit. For example, some leadership companies such as ST Microelectronics, DuPont, Ricoh Corporation, Dell, HSBC, Swiss Re, Starbucks and others have already taken on voluntary commitments that go beyond their regulated obligations. Many financial services firms are supporting activities in the voluntary markets - particularly in the US - to gain a foothold before compliance markets are launched, and to complement European, Japanese and Australian compliance efforts. Change, it seems, is happening, but it needs to happen more quickly and on a larger scale. Fortunately, there is room for hope when John Doerr andVinod Khosla...

The Change Wave Thesis

Solar installations, which once consisted mainly of small projects paid for by homeowners or small businesses, are increasingly being financed by companies that offer cheaper electricity or lease payments in exchange for the use of a roof. The solar panels are installed on the roof of an office building or retail outlet, but belong to and are maintained by someone else.

The Productive Entrepreneur

The Productive Entrepreneur

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