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The remaining tables and graphs in this chapter provide an overview of energy use in the United States. This section is included for two main reasons. First, the data in this section complement the information presented in chapter 3. Second, the United States is the world's largest consumer of energy, making it the most important player in global energy dynamics.

This brief summary of U.S energy statistics first provides total energy consumption for each state (table 6.20), and then presents data for the production of individual resources. Because different energy industries are distributed into different geographic regions, summaries of regional energy facts are difficult to compile. State divisions are included for different resources.

Where possible, energy data are described using U.S. Census Bureau divisions (table 6.21). Such is the case for the overall energy overview (figure 6.13). Information for natural gas production is also presented according to Census Bureau divisions, but the Gulf of Mexico offshore region is distinguished as its own category because it makes up 21 percent of U.S. natural gas production (figure 6.17).

Crude oil production is generally organized into PAD districts, so named for the districts drawn by the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) in 1950 for purposes of supply management after World War II (table 6.22). Overall petroleum production from 1900 to 2005 is summarized in figure 6.14. An important note to make here is that U.S. petroleum production peaked in the late 1960s. Figure 6.15 depicts the most recent production numbers for the United States divided by PAD district. There are two additional figures in this section that summarize important petroleum data. Figure 6.20 shows U.S. petroleum import and export trends since 1960, it illustrates the dramatic increase in imports while exports remained relatively unchanged. Figure 6.21 complements the previous figure by illustrating the top ten foreign sources of petroleum for the United States.

Coal production is also categorized according to its own geographic regions (table 6.23). Figure 6.16 shows the amount of coal produced in the United States broken down by coal producing region. Here it is important to point out the prevalence of surface mining techniques utilized in the western region. In these

Consumption

Consumption

State

Population

(trillion Btu)

State

Population

(trillion Btu)

Northeast

Connecticut

3,485,881

888.7

New York

19,228,031

4,220.6

Maine

1,308,245

478.5

Pennsylvania

12,364,930

3,972.7

Massachusetts

6,417,565

1,588.8

Rhode Island

1,075,729

227.7

New Hampshire

1,287,594

327.5

Vermont

619,092

155.8

New Jersey

8,640,028

2,578.3

Total

54,427,095

14,438.6

Midwest

Illinois

12,649,940

3,918.3

Missouri

5,718,717

1,841.8

Indiana

6,196,269

2,912.8

Nebraska

1,738,013

646.1

Iowa

2,941,362

1,175.8

North Dakota

633,051

395.0

Kansas

2,724,224

1,117.9

Ohio

11,431,748

3,986.2

Michigan

10,078,146

3,158.2

South Dakota

764,599

263.9

Minnesota

5,061,662

1,795.8

Wisconsin

5,471,792

1,832.5

Total

65,409,523

23,044.3

South

Alabama

4,501,862

2,013.5

Mississippi

2,880,793

1,183.8

Arkansas

2,726,166

1,132.8

North Carolina

8,422,375

2,643.7

Delaware

817,827

312.9

Oklahoma

3,504,917

1,490.9

District of Colombia 557,846

183.5

South Carolina

4,146,753

1,613.6

Florida

16,993,369

4,287.8

Tennessee

5,841,585

2,268.9

Georgia

8,746,849

3,003.7

Texas

22,099,136

12,369.8

Kentucky

4,116,780

1,877.2

Virginia

7,383,387

2,428.6

Louisiana

4,490,380

3,693.0

West Virginia

1,810,347

784.1

Maryland

5,512,477

1,550.5

Total

48,463,556

18,054.9

West

Alaska

648,510

761.9

Nevada

2,241,700

654.2

Arizona

5,577,784

1,370.7

New Mexico

1,879,252

663.1

California

35,456,602

8,130.3

Oregon

3,562,681

1,049.2

Colorado

4,548,071

1,351.5

Utah

2,378,696

704.9

Hawaii

1,248,200

309.6

Washington

6,131,131

1,934.6

Idaho

1,368,1 11

466.6

Wyoming

501,915

461.2

Montana

917,885

375.9

Total

66,460,538

18,233.7

U.S. Total

290,850,005

98,554.9

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "State Energy Data System tables," http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/_states.html. Accessed October 23, 2006.

Northeast

New England

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Middle Atlantic

New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

South

South Atlantic

Delaware, District of Colombia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South

Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

East South Central

Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee

West South Central

Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

Midwest

East North Central

Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

West North Central

Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

West

Mountain

Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming

Pacific

Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, "U.S. Regions," http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf. Accessed October 23, 2006.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, "U.S. Regions," http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf. Accessed October 23, 2006.

states, coal is often found closer to the surface and more easily extracted using such methods.

Electricity generation is another important component to energy use in the United States. Figure 6.18 demonstrates that coal accounted for 50 percent of the electricity produced in the United States in 2005. Natural gas and nuclear resources are the two other main sources used by the electric utility industry.

With the exception of hydroelectricity, renewable energy sources comprise a relatively small amount of the energy pie in the United States. However, since renewable energy technologies will become more important for future energy needs, two graphics depicting renewable energy consumption by type and by sector of end use are in figure 6.19.

Previous chapters discussed the importance of energy legislation and regulation to resource allocation for society. Tables 6.24-6.30 provide an overview of important U.S. energy legislation. Included in these selections are environmental and land use laws that have impacted energy industries in the United States.

Pacific, 12%

Mountain, 6%

West North Central, 7%

Total U.S. Energy

Consumption:

98,605.2 trillion Btu

East North Central, 16%

Middle Atlantic, 11%

Pacific, 12%

Mountain, 6%

West North Central, 7%

East North Central, 16%

New England, 4%

East South Central, 7%

West South Central, 20%

South Atlantic, 17%

New England, 4%

East South Central, 7%

West South Central, 20%

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Total Energy Consumption Table," State Energy Data System, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/_states.html. Accessed October 24, 2006.

TABLE 6.22 State Division by PAD District

PAD District

States

I

Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York,

Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South

Carolina, Georgia, Florida

II

Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota,

North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma

III

Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico

IV

Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho

V

Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Crude Oil Production," Petroleum Supply Annual 2005, Petroleum Navigator, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_a.htm. Accessed October 24, 2006.

FIGURE 6.14 U.S. Crude Oil Production (1900-2005)

FIGURE 6.14 U.S. Crude Oil Production (1900-2005)

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Crude Oil Production," Petroleum Supply Annual 2005, Petroleum Navigator, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_a.htm. Accessed October 24, 2006.

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2005, "Crude Oil Production," Petroleum Supply Annual 2005, Petroleum Navigator, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_a.htm.

TABLE 6.23 U.S. Coal-Producing Regions

Region

(2005)

Underground Mines (2005)

Appalachian

Alabama, Georgia, eastern Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia

548

682

Interior Region (including Gulf Coast)

Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, and western Kentucky

34

72

Western Region

Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming

24

38

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Glossary of Terms," http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/index.html

Appalachian Interior Western

U.S. total coal production: 1,130 million short tons

Appalachian Interior Western

U.S. total coal production: 1,130 million short tons

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2005, Annual Coal Report 2005, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/acr_sum.html. Accessed October 26, 2006.

Northeast 1%

Offshore Gulf of Mexico 21%

Northeast 1%

South

South

West 28%

U.S. Total

Production (2004):

18,243,554 million

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production," Natural Gas Navigator, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/ng_prod_sum_a_EPG0_FPD_mmcf_a.htm. Accessed October 27, 2006.

Nuclear, 19%

thousand megawatt hours

Natural Gas, 19%

Petroleum, 3%

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Net Generation by Energy Source by Type of Producer/' Electric Power Annual Report, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat1p1.html. Accessed October 27, 2006.

Renewable Energy Consumption by Type

U.S. Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector (Quadrillion Btu)

Alcohol Fuels, 5%

Biomass, 42%

Total U.S. Renewable Energy Consumption: 6.116 quadrillion Btu

Alcohol Fuels, 5%

Biomass, 42%

Total U.S. Renewable Energy Consumption: 6.116 quadrillion Btu

Hydroelectric, 44%

Commercial, 2%

Industrial, 27%

Hydroelectric, 44%

Commercial, 2%

Industrial, 27%

Electric Power,

Electric Power,

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Tables," Renewable Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/rea_data/rea_sum.html. Accessed October 27, 2006.

FIGURE 6.20 U.S. Petroleum Trade (1960-2005)

FIGURE 6.20 U.S. Petroleum Trade (1960-2005)

Imports-----Exports

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2006, "Petroleum Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2005," Annual Energy Review, 2005 (Washington DC: Department of Energy), 127. Accessed October 15, 2006. Accessed October 15, 2006.

2,138

U.S Total: 13,145

1,665

1,558 1,554

1,140

330 316

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Top Suppliers of U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum, 2004," Petroleum Supply Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html. Accessed October 1, 2006.

Year Legislation

Major points

917 Food and Food Control (Lever) Act

944 The Synthetic Liquid Fuels Act

950 Defense Production Act

973 Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act

974 Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act

975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act

977 Energy Reorganization Act

978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act

978 Energy Tax Act

980 Windfall Profits Tax Act

982 Energy Emergency Preparedness Act

992 Comprehensive National Energy Policy Act

2005 Energy Policy Act

Creates the U.S. Fuel Administration (USFA) to oversee operations of the coal industry; grants the administrative branch the power to fix coal prices. The USFA was dismantled in 1919.

Establishes a research program for the development of synthetic fuels as part of a strategic reserve initiative. The program was ended in 1954.

Grants the secretary of the interior the authority to oversee power production and distribution for the Korean War effort.

Establishes price controls for petroleum in response to the Arab Oil Embargo.

Mandates that steps be taken to assess and coordinate the nation's energy resources with its energy needs; directs that coal resources be more effectively utilized; seeks to adjust environmental regulations to meet energy needs.

Addresses supply issues and develops conservation programs for managing energy demand; mandates the development of a strategic petroleum reserve; seeks to improve energy efficiency of the nation's energy industries.

Consolidates U.S. energy agencies with the creation of the Department of Energy (DOE).

Mandates the federal government to explore energy-efficient technologies in buildings; promotes the use of renewable energy technologies in public buildings.

Provides tax incentives for households to implement energy conservation measures.

Issues an excise tax on domestic oil companies. The tax was levied on the revenue difference between the market price and a government determined base price of oil.

Updates the Energy Policy and Conservation Act with a focus on further development of strategic petroleum reserves; includes measures on how the federal government will respond to energy-emergencies and fuel shortages.

Mandates energy efficiency standards for federal buildings and provides incentives to states, businesses, and households to adopt energy-efficient technology.

Provides incentives for the development of renewable energy sources, most notably to the biofuels industry to stimulate the use of ethanol-burning vehicles; provides tax and other incentives for the development of nuclear energy resources; continues to grant subsidies for oil and gas drilling and exploration activities._

Year Legislation

Major points

1946 Atomic Energy Act

1954 Atomic Energy Act

1957 Price-Anderson Act

1974 Energy Reorganization Act

1980 Nuclear Safety Research, Development, and Demonstration Act

1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act

1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Act

1988 Price-Anderson Amendments

Establishes the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Joint Commission on Atomic Energy (JACE) as oversight agencies for nuclear development; mandates that all nuclear resources be owned by the federal government.

Allows for private ownership of nuclear power as a stimulus for industry to develop nuclear power resources.

Further promotes nuclear development in the United States by limiting liability for potential nuclear accidents.

Creates the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to take over duties of the AEC.

Mandates the development of safety standards for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants.

Mandates that two sites, one in the East and one in the West, be established as nuclear waste repositories for waste generated in the United States.

Revises the 1982 act to mandate that one central storage facility be developed and recommended Yucca Mountain as the site for the repository.

Raises the liability limits that the federal government would pay plant owners/operators in the event of an accident.

TABLE 6.26 Renewable-Energy Legislation

Year

Legislation

Major points

1970

Geothermal Steam Act

Authorizes federal development of geothermal resources and allows the Department of the Interior to lease land for geothermal development.

1974

Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act

Authorizes federal support of research and development of solar energy.

1974

Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act

Mandates the demonstration of solar technology for heating and cooling of residential dwellings and commercial structures.

1978

Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act

Mandates that the secretary of energy spearhead efforts to implement vigorous research and development programs for improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of solar photovoltaic technology.

1980

Energy Security Act

Designed to develop solutions for energy security issues; mandates research and development funding for solar, geothermal, ocean thermal, biomass, and other renewable technologies.

Year Legislation

Major points

1920 Water Power Act

1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Act

1935 Federal Power Act

1935 Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA)

1936 Rural Electrification Act

1938 Natural Gas Act

1968 Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act

1978 Natural Gas Policy Act

1978 Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA)

2005 Energy Policy Act

Allows for federal oversight of hydroelectric power generation on navigable streams; establishes the Federal Power Commission (later became the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [FERC]).

Provides federal funding for a multipurpose river project; establishes publicly owned hydroelectricity resources and flood control network in the Tennessee Valley.

Allows the government to regulate and oversee utility rates.

Abolishes utility holding companies and regulates utility transactions.

Seeks to increase electricity distribution to rural areas by providing financial support and incentives to nonprofit cooperatives for establishing electric utilities in rural areas.

Gives the Federal Power Commission authority to regulate interstate sales of natural gas.

Mandates that safety standards be developed for the transport of natural gas and other fuels by pipeline.

Removes the distinction between inter- and intrastate natural gas markets by establishing wellhead pricing and gives the federal government a larger role in natural gas pricing.

Requires utility companies to purchase electricity produced by cogeneration.

Removed PURPA regulations and nullified PUHCA in an effort to promote industry deregulation.

Year

Legislation

Major points

1924

Oil Pollution Act

Mandates pollution control measures for the practices of drilling, pumping, refining, and transporting petroleum. The act marks the first time that safety and environmental standards for oil production are required by the federal government. Although largely developed by oil-friendly interests, the law recognizes environmental damage that occurs from oil production.

1972

Clean Water Act

Establishes a permitting system for the discharge of waste into the nation's navigable waterways and requires that pollution control mechanisms be installed to remove pollutants from water prior to discharge.

1980

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Mandates standards and procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. This law affected energy industries and their practices of handling and disposal of wastes accrued during extraction and refining processes.

1980

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Develops a regulatory structure for cleaning up abandoned hazardous waste sites. Many of the contaminated, or Superfund, sites were owned and operated by the DOE as facilities used in energy resources testing and development.

1990

Oil Pollution Act of 1990

Eliminates federal liability caps for accidents resulting from negligence; requires that all tankers operating in U.S. waters demonstrate financial responsibility; mandates that single-hull tankers be phased out.

TABLE 6.29 Clean Air Acts

Year

Legislation

Major points

1955

Clean Air Act

Recognizes air pollution as a local problem and restricts federal involvement to technical assistance with pollution-abatement programs.

1963

Clean Air Act

Grants the federal government authority to intervene in interstate air-pollution matters at the request of state governments.

1967

Clean Air Act

Mandates the establishment of Air Quality Control Regions that require states to develop air quality standards.

1970

Clean Air Act

Develops National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and requires states to develop implementation plans to meet NAAQS.

1977

Clean Air Act Amendments

Develops specific classes of air quality control regions based on pollution severity and proximity to conservation areas; permits the enforcement of federal air quality control measures if state implementation plans are not effective.

1990

Clean Air Act Amendments

Requires more stringent standards for six types of air pollutants (see chapter 3); establishes a permitting program for emission sources; establishes cap-and-trade mechanisms for pollution reduction.

2004

Clear Skies Act

Revises deadlines for pollution caps on NOx and SO2 emissions.

Year

Legislation

Major points

1920

Mineral Leasing Act

Allows the lease of federal land to energy companies for oil and gas development.

1953

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

Establishes the Department of the Interior (DOI) as the main leasing agent of offshore areas for oil and gas drilling.

1976

Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act

Establishes provisions for the leasing of federal lands for coal mining.

1976

Federal Land Policy and Management Act

Mandates the DOI to coordinate land use and the development of environmental impact statements (EIS) among the different land-management agencies. The act's environmental stipulations also have implications for the energy industry.

1977

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

Mandates that coal companies reclaim and restore land after surface-mining operations cease; creates the Office of Surface Mining to enforce the legislation.

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