Fossil Fuels

Petroleum, natural gas, and coal make up 87 percent of the energy consumed worldwide. The flow path of each of the three primary fossil fuels, from extraction and production to consumption, is illustrated in figures 6.3-6.5. These energy flow diagrams illustrate the larger picture that is involved in the production and consumption of fossil fuels. From these diagrams, a few important but often overlooked aspects in each process can be identified. For example, market reports state the amount of crude oil produced, or the price for a barrel of crude oil. The emphasis on this aspect of the petroleum cycle overlooks the process of refining. Figure 6.3 shows that refining is the crucial step required for the delivery of marketable petroleum products for consumers, most notably gasoline and jet fuel.

Figure 6.4 demonstrates that although natural gas resources are often found with petroleum resources, the gas is not always used. Instead, natural gas extracted with oil is sometimes reinjected into the reservoir, vented, or flared. Natural gas flaring, often disregarded by market reports, can be very polluting and dangerous. For this reason, it is considered illegal in many producing countries.

Finally, figure 6.5 demonstrates the path of coal from extraction to consumption. An important consideration of coal mining is the amount of refuse waste that is produced. This waste is often separated after the resource is mined and stored in large coal waste impoundments. Since the refuse can be up to 50 percent of the coal mined, it can pose a problem if it is not stored properly. Another important point to make regarding the production of coal is its importance in the steel industry. Coking coal remains one of the most widely utilized fuels in steel production, making it a vital resource in the process of industrialization.

Tables 6.2 and 6.3 provide statistics for fossil fuel production and consumption for each world region in 2004. These data are presented in physical units for each resource. These tables provide a snapshot of global energy use, but they do not consider how each resource has been used over time. Figure 6.6 fills this gap by graphing the consumption of each fossil fuel over the period of twenty-four years (1980-2004). From this figure, one is able to identify resource trends that may have an impact on regional energy dynamics. For example, in five out of the seven regions, petroleum is the dominant resource consumed. This trend

Petroleum

Petroleum

CD CO

Sources: 1. PenWell Corporation, 2006, Oil& Gas Journal, September 227 (9), obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Petroleum Reserves Data."

2. EIA. International Energy Annual, table posted online June 19, 2006, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilproduction.html. 3. EIA, International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed November 2, 2006.

Natural Gas Resources and Reserves

Global Reserves estimate (2004)1: 6,044 trillion cubic feet

Reinjected 12.5 trillion cubic ft (2003)

Resource Extraction Global gross production (2003)2:116 trillion cubic feet

Natural Gas

Exploration Often found with petroleum resources

Flaring and Venting 2.95

trillion cubic feet (2003)

C02 Emissions from Natural Gas Consumption Global total (2004): 5.45 billion metric tons

Transport

Residential heating, cooking t

Electricity Generation

Global Consumption: Dry natural gas (2004): 99.7 trillion cubic feet

Natural Gas Production Total Marketable Production (2003): 100.1 trillion cubic feet

Transport

Water Removal ^

Dry natural gas production (2003): 95.4 trillion cubic feet

LNG 0

Sources: 1. PennWell Corporation, 2004, 0il& Gas Journal December 102 (47). Obtained from Energy Information Administration (EIA). http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea 2. EIA "World Natural Gas Production, 2003." In International Energy Annual 2004. http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea. Accessed November 2, 2006.

Coal

Coal

CD CO

Sources: 1. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. 2. World Coal Institute, Coal and Steel Facts 2006, http://www.worldcoal.org/pages/content/index.asp?PagelD=l 89.3. National Academy of Sciences, 2002, Coal Waste Impoundments: Risks, Responses and 4/femaf/Ves (Washington, DC: National Academy Press), 23. Accessed November 2, 2006.

OO M

Crude oil Natural

(million Percent gas Percent Coal (thousand Percent barrels per global (trillion global short tons per global

Region

day)

total

cubic feet)

total

week)

Total

Africa

8.79

12.2

5.28

5.4

274

4.5

Asia and Oceania

7.43

10.3

12.10

12.3

3,232

53.2

Central and South America

6.12

8.6

4.54

4.6

75

1.2

Eurasia

10.53

14.6

28.16

28.6

493

8.1

Europe

5.72

7.9

11.89

12.1

806

13.3

Middle East

22.37

31.0

9.95

10.1

1.1

0.02

North America

11.20

15.5

26.70

27.1

1,197

19.7

Total

72.22

98.62

6,079

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Petroleum, Coal and Natural Gas Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 10, 2006.

TABLE 6.3

Fossil Fuel Consumption by Region (2004)

TABLE 6.3

Fossil Fuel Consumption by Region (2004)

Region

Crude oil (million barrels per day)

Percent global total

Natural gas (trillion cubic feet)

Percent global total

Coal (thousand short tons per week)

Percent global total

Africa

2.79

3.4

2.62

2.6

205.83

3.4

Asia and Oceania

23.34

28.3

13.47

13.5

3,190.25

52.3

Central and South America

5.38

6.5

4.08

4.1

38.21

0.6

Eurasia

4.11

5.0

23.39

23.5

429.40

7.0

Europe

16.31

19.7

19.90

20.0

1,036.30

17.0

Middle East

5.66

6.9

8.61

8.6

16.27

0.3

North America

25.00

30.3

27.60

27.7

1,182.53

19.4

Total

82.59

99.67

6,098.78

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "Petroleum, Coal and Natural Gas Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 10, 2006.

Africa

7.000 6.000

Africa

7.000 6.000

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70-

60

50-

C

40

45

30-

O

20

Asia and Oceania

OfN^^OOOOfN^^O

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fN fN fN

12 10

Central and South America

Central and South America

12 10

OfN^^OOOOfN^^Ot. OOOOOOOOOOC^C^C^C^C^

Petroleum Natural Gas Coal

Eurasia

Eurasia

OfN^^OOOOfN^^OOOOfN^

OOOOOOOOOOC^C^C^C^C^OOO

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Europe

Middle East

J 30

H 20

North America

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Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 10, 2006.

is important when considering future energy needs. As noted in previous chapters, petroleum production is projected to decline as resources become depleted. Resource depletion will make it more difficult for regional economies that are structured on petroleum consumption.

As meaningful as regional trends are, they do not provide detail on how much energy individual countries utilize. This distinction is important because often one or two countries in a particular region are responsible for a large share of resource production or consumption. For example, the United States comprises a large share of the energy consumed in North America. South Africa is also notable as it consumes five times the energy of all other African nations combined. Tables 6.4-6.6 show what resources countries produce and consume the largest amounts of.

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