Electricity

Electricity is the most important secondary energy resource that is used by society. Generally, values for electricity are divided into three categories: electric capacity, electricity generation, and

Total Petroleum* (thousand barrels per day) Rank ----

Country

Production

Country

Consumption

1

Saudi Arabia

10,492.6

United States

20,731.2

2

Russia

9,273.7

China

6,400.0

3

United States

8,700.2

Japan

5,353.2

4

Iran

4,101.7

Russia

2,770.0

5

Mexico

3,847.6

Germany

2,649.9

6

China

3,635.4

India

2,450.0

7

Norway

3,196.6

Canada

2,294.0

8

Canada

3,135.2

Korea, South

2,148.7

9

Venezuela

2,854.8

Brazil

2,140.0

10

United Arab Emirates

2,760.1

France

1,977.2

* Total petroleum = crude oil, natural gas plant liquids and other liquids, and refinery processing gain Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

TABLE 6.5

Top Ten Natural Gas-Producing and -Consuming Countries

Natural Gas (trillion cubic feet) Rank -

TABLE 6.5

Top Ten Natural Gas-Producing and -Consuming Countries

Natural Gas (trillion cubic feet) Rank -

Country

Production

Country

Consumption

1

Russia

22.386

United States

22.430

2

United States

18.757

Russia

16.022

3

Canada

6.483

Germany

3.576

4

United Kingdom

3.389

United Kingdom

3.477

5

Netherlands

3.036

Canada

3.385

6

Iran

2.963

Ukraine

3.051

7

Norway

2.948

Iran

3.021

8

Algeria

2.830

Japan

2.950

9

Indonesia

2.663

Italy

2.847

10

Saudi Arabia

2.319

Saudi Arabia

2.319

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

Coal (million short tons)

Coal (million short tons)

Country

Production

Country

Consumption

1

China

2,156.38

China

2,062.39

2

United States

1,112.10

United States

1,107.25

3

India

443.72

India

478.16

4

Australia

390.96

Germany

279.95

5

Russia

308.88

Russia

257.52

6

South Africa

267.67

Japan

203.72

7

Germany

232.67

South Africa

195.14

8

Poland

177.70

Poland

153.10

9

Indonesia

142.31

Australia

150.09

10

Kazakhstan

95.70

Korea, South

90.56

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/contents.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

consumption. Capacity refers to the maximum amount of power that can be supplied to the electricity grid from a generating unit. This value is generally expressed in the units of megawatts. Recall from chapter 1 that a watt is an energy unit that describes the rate at which electricity can be generated; one watt is equivalent to a generation rate of one joule per second. A megawatt equals a rate of a million joules per second. Hence an electric capacity of 500 megawatts means that a particular generating unit has the ability to produce 500 million joules of energy per second in the form of electricity. A 500-megawatt plant can produce enough energy to serve about 250,000 households. A watt already has time factored into it, so 250,000 homes would be served continuously (or at least as long as the operational life of the power plant). It is important to note that generators do not always produce at capacity.

Electricity generation is often divided into values of gross and net generation. Gross generation calculates the actual amount of electricity that was produced from a generating unit. Net electricity generation subtracts the amount of electricity that is used in the operation of the generating facility from the gross value. Both values are generally reported in units of kilowatt-hours. Electricity consumption is the amount of electricity that reaches the end user. It is typically slightly less than the value of generation to account for transmission losses. Table 6.7 provides an overview of these three electricity statistics by world region.

Region

Installed Capacity (thousand megawatts)

Net Electricity Generation (billion kilowatt-hours)

Net Electricity Generation (billion kilowatt-hours)

Africa

103.7

505.4

469.6

Asia and Oceania

1,074.6

5,103.0

4,748.4

Central and South America 212.2

881.4

819.6

Eurasia

342.4

1,307.3

1,194.8

Europe

781.4

3,440.0

3,217.5

Middle East

112.0

566.6

526.8

North America

1,110.1

4,795.4

4,464.6

Total

3,736.3

16,599.1

15,441.3

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data, Total Electric Generation, 1980-2004," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/electricitygeneration.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

FIGURE 6.7 World Electric Capacity by Fuel Type (2004)

FIGURE 6.7 World Electric Capacity by Fuel Type (2004)

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), "International Data, International Electricity Generation Tables," International Energy Annual 2004, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/electricitygeneration.html. Accessed October 25, 2006.

Electricity is generated from a variety of sources. Figure 6.7 presents a pie chart that breaks down world electric capacity by fuel type. Conventional thermal resources refer to generating units that utilize fossil fuels. They account for the largest amount of installed electric capacity, followed by hydropower, nuclear, and renewable resources.

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