Kenneth

Kenneth Lay was born into a poor family in Tyrone, Missouri, in 1942. He attended the University of Missouri and received a doctorate in economics from the University of Houston in 1970. Lay became introduced to the oil industry when he went to work as an economist for the Exxon Corporation in 1965. In the early 1970s, Lay worked as an energy regulator, first for the Power Commission and then as the undersecretary for energy issues at the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1974, he returned to...

Fossil Fuels

Petroleum, natural gas, and coal make up 87 percent of the energy consumed worldwide. The flow path of each of the three primary fossil fuels, from extraction and production to consumption, is illustrated in figures 6.3-6.5. These energy flow diagrams illustrate the larger picture that is involved in the production and consumption of fossil fuels. From these diagrams, a few important but often overlooked aspects in each process can be identified. For example, market reports state the amount of...

Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA

The Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association is an organization that seeks to address environmental issues associated with polluting energy industries in China by promoting the development and use of renewable energy technologies. It provides a collaborative bridge between regulatory agencies and industry and promotes renewable research and development activities. The CREIA Web site provides an overview of the renewable energy industry in China, Chinese energy policies and regulations,...

Production and Transportation Fossil Energies

Mining for coal and drilling for oil and natural gas have large environmental costs associated with them. Coal mining, which is a very dangerous occupation, is devastating to the land. Coal can be mined in two ways deep shaft mining and surface mining. Deep shaft mining is used in areas where coal seams are located 100 feet or greater below the surface. This type of mining requires that miners work underground in mine shafts and extract coal by hand. Deep mining is very dangerous to those who...

Energy Markets and Pricing

The global market for energy is the means by which energy resources are traded among countries and within entities that supply, produce, and distribute energy. Most nations do not have domestic natural resources available to support their energy needs, so they buy energy from other countries. These transactions are most often carried out by large energy companies. Transactions are complex and constantly changing to reflect variable energy prices and investor attitudes. Energy giants, such as...

International Institute for Energy Conservation IIEC httpwwwiiecorg

Founded in 1984, the International Institute for Energy Conservation is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that works to promote the sustainable use of energy, water, and land resources. It provides technical and institutional support, constructs policies, and implements programs that incorporate efficiency measures in the design of energy systems. The IIEC Web site contains information on services provided by the IIEC, an e-newsletter, news, and other information in the area of energy...

Centralized Energy Systems

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 is an important example of how economies are linked to energy systems. The Communist regime developed many energy-intensive industries with little regard to environmental effects. The Soviet republics pursued many years of rapid economic growth without developing means to increase energy efficiency. Energy resources were state-owned and heavily subsidized by the government to promote economic growth. This promotion led to excessive consumption without...

Energy War and Global Expansion

In the first half of the twentieth century, the importance of coal in world markets waned and petroleum rose to be the dominant global energy resource. Technology and electricity brought new products to the consumer market, and the mass production of the automobile increased the demand for gasoline. World Wars I and II revealed energy security issues for the United States and Western Europe, and the world emerged from these wars dependent on cheap and abundant supplies of oil. This section...

Preindustrial Energy Consumption

Throughout most of human history, energy consumption has been relatively low. Human and animal labor provided most of the energy used for agriculture, transportation, and societal growth. Wind, water, and biomass sources were the primary means by which domestic and trade needs were met. This section examines the use of these resources by humans until the 1850s. Waterwheels were the first devices designed to harness the kinetic energy of flowing water. The first uses of water mills can be traced...

Mohammad Mossadegh

Mohammad Mossadegh was an important political figure in Iranian history. He received a Ph.D. from Neuchatel University in Switzerland. He returned to Iran in 1914 to become a public servant and elected official and aligned himself with the nationalist party, a political organization that opposed foreign-owned operations in Iran. He served as the prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. He is notable in energy history for his attempts to nationalize the country's oil resources. Soon after...

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution is a broad term used to describe the period in history that marks the rise in manufacturing and industry. During this period, global energy needs dramatically increased and population demographics shifted from rural to urban regions. This section examines energy transitions and energy use during the industrial revolution. Fossil fuels, especially coal, replaced biomass, water, and wood energies as the dominant resource used in society. Technological innovations in...

National Energy Policy

Because so many different interests are involved in energy issues, it has been difficult for the United States to implement a comprehensive energy policy. Prior to the late 1940s, federal involvement in energy policy was limited to regulatory oversight of utility distribution (discussed later in this chapter) and intervention in energy supply during times of war. In World War I, a mandatory energy conservation program was necessary to overcome a fuel crisis that occurred from lack of foresight...

Electricity Engines Lights and Energy Services

1690 Denis Papin builds the first small coal-powered steam engine. Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen later modify the design. By 1750, water-pumping steam engines are installed in English mines. 1765 James Watt expands the steam engine design by adding a separate condenser, thereby increasing efficiency and power output. Watt's innovations mark the rise in size and use of the modern steam engine (see Watt's biography in chapter 5). 1802 The Charlotte Dundras, built by Patrick Miller in England,...

Global Wind Energy Council GWEC

Established in 2005, the Global Wind Energy Council is an international forum for the wind energy industry. Its mission is to promote the development and use of wind power as a leading energy resource. To accomplish this mission, the GWEC works in areas of policy development, business leadership, global outreach, and education. The GWEC Web site provides information about wind energy industries worldwide, offers information about upcoming events, and provides links to publications about...

Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships NEEP

The Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships is a nonprofit organization that works to promote the use of energy-efficient products and services in the Northeast region of the United States. Formed in 1996, the NEEP has worked as an advocacy organization to increase the commercial availability of Energy Star products, promote information and technology exchange, and improve the efficiency of lighting, HVAC systems, and motors in industrial, commercial, and residential settings. The NEEP Web...

European Energy Network ENR

The European Energy Network is an association of European organizations involved in the development, management, and provision of energy programs in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency. It facilitates communication and collaboration between member organizations and provides technical support to the European energy community. The ENR Web site serves as an information exchange for member organizations and includes summaries of ongoing and completed projects.

International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA

The International Atomic Energy Agency was established in 1957 as an international nuclear watchdog organization. It provides technical support for the development of peaceful nuclear programs, ensures the safety and security of nuclear facilities, and verifies that nuclear programs worldwide are not used for military purposes. The IAEA Web site provides access to information about its programs and activities, a database of nuclear energy information, and nuclear standards, development reports,...

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Nyserda

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is a public benefit corporation created to administer the Energy Smart Program in the State of New York. It provides energy-efficient services and implements research and development projects in the area of energy efficiency and environmental protection. The NYSERDA Web site provides information on incentives for creating energy efficient businesses and homes, descriptions of authority programs, and links to funding opportunities,...

Renewable Energy

Hydroelectric, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal resources are the five categories of renewable energy resources depicted in figure 6.10. With the exception of geothermal energy, solar radiation provides most of the energy that drives the renewable cycles. The facts in this section focus largely on the potential of renewable sources to generate electricity from hydroelectric, solar, wind, and geothermal resources. Statistics for biomass are difficult to determine because often these...

Smil V Energy in Chinas Modernization Advances and Limitations Armonk Ny M E Sharpe pp

This book discusses China's potential energy resources, extraction and utilization of energy in rural and urban areas, goals and strategies outlined for energy distribution and use in industrialization efforts, and potential environmental considerations that need to be made during this transition. It provides a useful re- source for students and scholars who wish to understand energy resource distribution (both renewable and nonrenewable), the economic dynamics of rural and urban growth, and...

Films and Videorecordings

Conservation of Energy Potential Energy The California Institute of Technology and the Corporation for Community College Television. Published by Intellimation, 1987. Annenberg CPB Project produced by P. F. Buffa and directed by M. Rothschild. VHS, 58 minutes This film provides an overview of the physical laws of energy conservation and potential energy. It describes the concepts and mathematics that underlie the fundamental laws of energy in nature. This film is a good supplement to...

Solar Energy

Most of the energy sources on the planet are indirectly derived from the Sun. It is estimated that approximately 170,000 terawatts (TW) of solar radiation is constantly impacting the surface of the Earth (Rose 1986, 71). Two-thirds of this radiation is reflected back into space, but the remaining energy is greater than one hundred times the amount of power presently available on Earth (Ingersoll 1990, 207). Although not all of this energy can be harnessed, the Sun represents a potentially large...

Yucca Mountain

The location of a nuclear waste repository site has also been a contentious energy and land use issue. Currently the United States has over 40,000 tons of spent nuclear fuel and over 400,000 cubic meters of high-level radioactive waste located in 100 different sites in forty-two states (Long and Ewing 2004). Although this issue has plagued the federal government for five decades, the terrorist attacks of September 11 heightened concerns over the security of these facilities, the danger in...

Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla is most notable in energy history for his development of alternating current electrical systems. He was born in the Croatian town of Smiljan in 1856. He received formal education at the Polytechnic School in Graz and later attended the University of Prague. He began a career in electrical engineering in Europe before moving to the United States in 1884. He worked with Thomas Edison for a time however, the two inventors did not get along, and in 1885, Tesla began working with George...

Nuclear

The conversion of energy from nuclear primary sources also creates steam to power an electric generator, but the main difference occurs in how the energy is released from the fuel. With fossil fuels, the process of combustion releases chemical energy that is stored in the chemical bonds between molecules in the fuel. A nuclear reaction, on the other hand, releases energy contained in the nuclei of atoms. To understand a nuclear reaction, it is necessary to define the structural parts of an...

Energy Resources

In preceding chapters, it was noted that over 85 percent of the energy consumed worldwide is from fossil fuels. But that fact does not tell what specific resources are used in different regions. Source Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Data Tables, Total World Energy Production and Consumption (1980-2004), International Energy Annual 2004. Figure 6.2 provides a more comprehensive breakdown of energy use. While fossil fuels comprise a large slice of the pie in all regions,...

How Does Society Use Energy

Before describing the various ways in which energy can be harnessed, it is important to understand how energy resources are used in society. There are four primary end uses of energy industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation applications. In the industrial sector, energy is used to make metal and paper, for petroleum refining, agriculture, the chemical industry, and the manufacturing industry. This sector comprises approximately 33 percent of the energy used in a developed...

Global Energy Law Portal

Oil, Gas and Energy Law Intelligence OGEL http www.gasandoil.com ogel This Web site provides up-to-date information about regulations, legal instruments, and standards imposed and recommended by various jurisdictions e.g., countries, international organizations, regional governments, etc. . It offers a database of legal and regulatory materials and current developments in the oil and gas industry. Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information Systems International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA This...

Contents

List of Figures, xiii List of Tables, xv Energy Measurement and Units, 6 Sources of Energy, 8 How Does Society Use Energy 9 Fossil Fuels, 10 Natural Gas, 10 Petroleum Oil , 11 Coal, 12 Nuclear, 14 Renewable Sources, 16 Solar Energy, 16 Water Energy, 18 Wind Energy, 19 Biomass Energy, 19 Geothermal Energy, 20 History of Energy Use, 21 Preindustrial Energy Consumption, 21 Industrial Revolution 1850-1914, 23 Energy, War, and Global Expansion 1914-1945, 26 Middle-Eastern Oil 1945-1970, 29 Energy...

Berinstein P Alternative Energy Facts Statistics and Issues Westport CT Oryx Press pp

This book provides an overview of alternative energy resources solar, biomass, wind, ocean, fusion, geothermal, and hydrogen. It discusses overall energy issues and the economics of alternative energy sources. It examines issues of energy conservation and efficiency, energy storage systems, fuel cells, and the role of re-newables in the transportation sector. This book is a useful resource for students who wish to understand renewable energy technology. Borowitz, S. 1999. Farewell Fossil Fuels...

Enerdata Global Energy Intelligence

Enerdata is an independent consulting and information services company that offers a variety of standard and customized databases for different energy resources fossil and nonfossil energy, renewables, etc. , global and regional energy markets, energy efficiency measures, and key energy statistics. Energy Citations Database U.S. Department of Energy Energy Citations database provides access to scientific and technical energy publications. It offers bibliographic records for energy-related...

Periodicals Journals and Newsletters

Africa Energy Intelligence CMS Business Information 2a Altons House Office Park, Gatehouse Way, Aylesbury, HP103XU, England ISSN 1635-2742 This biweekly newsletter provides business news to the African mining, oil, gas, and utility industries. It offers up-to-date information on company mergers, privatization, and energy projects across Africa. Applied Energy Elsevier Inc. Branch office 30 Corporate Drive, 4th floor Burlington, MA 01803 ISSN 0306-2619 http www.elsevier.com This scholarly...

Industrialization of Developing Countries

World energy demand continues to rise as more developing countries become industrialized. Increasing along with demand is the scarcity of fossil fuel resources and the consequences of fossil fuel reliance. Asia is the area of the world that is expected to experience the largest increase in energy demand over the next twenty years. This region, with over 50 percent of the global population, is expected to surpass the United States and Europe as the world's largest consumer of primary energy...

Boyle G. Everett B. Ramage J. 2003. Energy Systems And Sustainability. Oxford Oup 619pp

Ramage, eds. 2003. Energy Systems and Sustainability. Oxford, England Oxford University Press. 619 pp. This book provides an overview of energy systems and their social, political, economic, and environmental impact. It examines the various energy resources used throughout most of the world, provides a basic overview of how energy systems work, explains the economics involved in energy provision and distribution, and assesses the use of these resources within the...

Centre for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies CADDET

This Web site provides a searchable database of information about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. It provides information about efficiency technologies used in industry, building transport, utilities, and agriculture knowledge about energy-saving measures in all sectors and suppliers and manufacturers of equipment and technology. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency DSIRE This Web-based database lists state and local incentives offered for the use of...