Effects of energy consumption on the environment at local and regional levels

Energy consumption results in emissions of pollutants. Local pollution, characteristic of urban areas or caused by emissions from an industrial plant (factory, cement works, refinery, etc.), is converted into regional pollution through accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Pollution becomes global when it concerns the entire planet, a situation we are facing with the greenhouse gas effect. Local pollution in an urban environment is due mainly to transport. The main pollutants discharged...

Wind energy an already mature energy

Wind power technology is already relatively mature, producing electricity under almost profitable conditions. Current machines can develop powers from 1.25 to 2.5 MW. The rotors fitted on 2.5 MW machines have a span of up to 80 m 59 . Virtually all high-power wind turbines have a three-blade rotor, which offers higher efficiency than two-blade rotors, without making construction of the wind turbine overcomplicated. Wind energy is almost competitive, the cost price of the electricity produced...

Natural gas

The development of natural gas has been quite rapid in recent years. It has become a widely used and excellent fuel for power plants, presenting strong environmental advantages (providing a clean fuel emitting 50 less CO2 per unit energy output than coal and 30 less than fuel oil) which can be used in an efficient and flexible way. Natural gas fired power plants require comparatively low investments and are quick to install. Combined cycle power plants, which associate a gas turbine with a...

The role of hydrogen

Apart from the special case of biomass, renewable energies can only be used in the form of electricity (wind, photovoltaic) or possibly low-thermal-level heat (thermal solar and geothermal). Energy diversification will therefore involve first increasing the use of electricity (in particular through heat pumps) and, secondly, introducing an energy vector which can serve as fuel and supply high-thermal-level heat, especially for industrial applications, without emitting CO2. Hydrogen is capable...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Biomass is a renewable energy source, which presents the advantage of storing energy. We can expect to see an increase in the role of biomass for energy production in the future. Biomass offers the advantage of being a renewable energy which is also storable. In the European Union, energy from biomass reached 61 Mtoe in 2006, an increase of 3.1 Mtoe compared with 2004. In the world, biomass represents the main source of renewable energy, amounting to 1186 Mtoe in 2006 1, 66 . The production of...

The role of fossil fuels

While our aim is to reduce as rapidly as possible the share of fossil fuels in the world primary energy supply, substantially reducing the amount of energy consumed and deploying renewable energy sources will take time. What can the role of fossil fuels be during this transition period and how can they contribute to help in achieving a transition aimed at their disappearance Furthermore, is the objective to widen and diversify fossil fuel sources reconcilable with the need to reduce CO2...

Energy efficiency

ADEME www.ADEME.fr Energy Star www.energystar.gov Association negawatt www.negawatt.com Batirbio www.batirbio.org Energie-Cites www.energie-cites.eu Eurocities www.eurocities.org Federation nationale des associations des usagers de transport Fnaut www.fnaut.asso.fr Groupement des autorit s responsables des transports GART www.gart.org Centre d'etudes sur les reseaux, les transports et l'urbanisme Cerfu www.cerfu.fr World Urbanization Prospects www.esa.un.org Groupe energies renouvelables,...

Implementing an acceptable evolution scenario

By using the four action points presented in the previous chapters reducing the consumption of energy, reducing its carbon content, managing fossil fuel supplies, and capturing and storing emitted CO2 , it is possible to satisfy world energy needs, while keeping CO2 emissions within acceptable limits. In order to demonstrate that it is feasible, let us examine evolution scenarios from now to 2050. The year 2050 represents a limit for any present extrapolation and is also an important landmark...