Operating and New Solar Power Plants

The first concentrating trough-type solar power plant in the United States was built in 1988. It is the 1 mW Saguaro plant located north of Tucson, Arizona, and was built for Arizona Public Service (APS). It covers 1 km2 and has parabolic trough-shaped mirrors. Today, the largest solar power plant in the United States is the 22-year-old thermal plant in California's Mojave Desert, which has a combined total capacity of 354 mW. At Kramer Junction, California, nine solar power plants, each 30 mW...

Solar Updraft Towers

The chimney effect of tall towers generates an updraft because the atmospheric pressure is higher at the bottom of the chimney and lower at the top. Therefore, the heavier colder air from outside of the chimney pushes the lighter warm air upward inside the chimney. Static home cooling systems utilize this effect to pull the cold air into homes from underground ducts during the summer. On the other hand, in the winter, this chimney effect can be harmful because it sucks cold air into the...

Solar Collector Costs Efficiencies and Suppliers

Swimming pool and rooftop water heaters can convert solar energy into heat with an efficiency of 50-70 . The efficiencies of electricity-generating solar collector systems are much lower. They operate at efficiencies from 5 to about 30 . Thin-film solar shingles used on residential roofs today are only about 5 to 8 efficient. The efficiency of solar towers is also about 5 . Photovoltaic PV cell efficiencies range from about 5 for amorphous silicon A-Si designs, 9 to 10 for CdTe modules, and 13...

Fuel Cell Designs

10kw Sofc Reformer

A fuel cell consists of an electrolyte that is sandwiched between two electrodes Figure 1.25 . A large variety of fuel cell designs exist, which include the following Phosphoric acid fuel cell PAFC Phosphoric acid electrolyte with platinum catalyst. It can use hydrocarbon fuel and is suited for stationary applications. It can generate both electricity and steam. As many as 200 units in sizes ranging from 200 kW to 1 mW are in operation. Proton exchange membrane PEM Solid organic polymer...

Reversible Fuel Cells RFCs

In the solar-hydrogen demonstration power plant I have designed, the functions of the electrolyzers and of the fuel cells are combined into reversible units RFCs . These dual-state fuel cells are expected to be much lighter than the combined weights of separate electrolyzers and fuel cells. The RFC during the day will operate in the electrolyzer mode converting solar energy into the chemical form hydrogen while at night it will switch to its fuel cell mode and will convert the chemical energy...

Insolation Global and the united States

Insolation the solar energy received by an area of 1 m2 varies with the geographic location, weather, orientation of the collectors, and with diurnal and seasonal weather variations. Solar power plants have been built on all five continents, mostly in the high-insolation areas near the equator. There are also plans to collect solar energy on artificial islands in the oceans and in other locations including space stations and solar satellites. The insolation at the top of the atmosphere is 1,368...

Thermal Solar Collector Designs SEGS and DSG

Dsg Parabolic Troughs

Thermal collectors on the roofs of private homes are usually flat and stationary units that serve to provide residences with heat and hot water. The yearly energy needed for heat and hot water of a well-insulated home in the Northeast United States is about 150 million Btus 44,000 kWh , which is about the same as the energy content of 1,000 gal of oil. According to a 2007 study by the McKinsey Global Institute, the residential energy consumption in the United States is 21.3 Q, or 21 of the...

Ghcb Coal Power

Trends in atmospheric concentrations and anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. From Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, http cdiac. esd.omi.gov . In addition to these direct effects, there are also indirect consequences. One consequence is that, as the oceans warm, they absorb less CO2 the other is that, as the Canadian, Siberian, and Alaskan permafrost melts, the rotting organic matter will release vast amounts of CO2 and methane. The rising CO2...

Coal

Five years ago the wholesale price of a metric ton of coal was about 25 in early 2008 it was up to 140 and rising. In contrast to oil and natural gas, the United States has very substantial coal reserves amounting to 27 of the global total Table 1.6 . Yearly coal consumption by the United States is 1.1 billion tons. Today in the United States, about 2 trillion kWh of electricity about 55 of the total are produced from coal Table 1.4 , and by 2030, that number is projected to rise to 3.3...

Info

Therefore there are generation costs Figure 1.5 , wholesale costs above , and transportation and distribution costs. The total for us, the end user, June, 2007 came to 18.9i kWh. The national average cost of electricity generation in the United States in 2007 was about 4-5i kWh, but it varies from region to region. In 2007 the national average retail prices by end-user sector were as follows Residential 10.7 kWh Commercial 9.9i kWh Industrial 6.4 kWh Transportation 10.4 kWh All Sectors 9.2 kWh...

The Combined Cycle Plant ISCCS

A combined-cycle plant utilizing a solar parabolic trough collector system is shown in Figure 1.33. This design is referred to as the ISCCS Integrated Solar and Combined Cycle System . SEGS steam cycle plants have been constructed with capacities ranging from 15 to 80 mWe ISCCS plants can be larger and the electricity they generate is usually less expensive, because as the size of the plant increases, the unit cost of electricity drops. When solar energy collection is coupled with a...

Stirling Solar Power Generators

Stirling Plant Engine

In addition to SEGS, ISCCS, PV, and updraft tower methods for collecting solar energy, Stirling solar dish systems are also used Figure 1.38 . These units focus the Sun's energy onto H2 in sealed Stirling engines. As the H2 is heated to 732 C 1,350 F , it expands and drives the pistons of the engine. Stirling engines are used on submarines because they are quiet no combustion takes place . In solar applications, their main advantage is their high efficiency 30 , which is nearly double that of...

Area Required to Meet Global Needs

Here I discuss the collection area requirements to meet global energy needs, but before that, smaller municipal applications will be discussed. Municipal solar power plants of the size range of 2 to 10 mW require 10 to 50 acres of See color insert following page 140. Global map of insolation in units of kWh m2 d. Source Earth Observatory, NASA. collector area and can supply 1,000 to 5,000 homes. These plants can consist of rows of solar panels mounted at the outskirts of municipalities and...