Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple...

Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a network optimization model (Figure 6.1) to examine these three stages of integrating renewables into utilities (reliability, intermittent intensive electric systems, and carbonless transportation). By constructing and analyzing model scenarios of future electricity and transportation systems attempts we quantify the Figure 6.1 Schematic of a coupled utility electric generation and transportation system using nuclear, fossil, and...

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Figure 5.10 OECD renewable energy R amp D expenditures Source Goldstein, 1999 . hydrogen production and infrastructure technologies, electric vehicles, superconductivity, storage, and hybrid configurations. Fourth, policies to address local air pollution and other environmental considerations should be structured so as to provide as much incentive to renew-ables and energy efficiency as possible. For example, the US SO2 allowance system developed under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has...

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and...

Developed vs developing countries

Although GHG emissions have historically been overwhelmingly due to developed nations, changing population and economic growth dynamics in developing countries will result in them surpassing developed nations in terms of GHG emissions by around 2030 Dowlatabadi and Oravetz, 1997 . Thus the energy intensities of these developing economies will be crucial in determining the need for carbon-free power. Unfortunately, analysis of energy intensity trends has been concentrated on the developed world,...