Table of statutes

Act 376 on CO2 Quotas for Electricity Production (Denmark) 191 Agricultural Holdings Act 1891 (SA) 12 Agricultural Holdings Act 1941 (NSW) 12 Assembly Bill 1890 of 1996 (Calif) 195 Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 (Cth) 9 Building Act 1993 (Vic) 148 Building Control Act 1991 (Vic) 180 California Public Resources Code (US) 12 Carbon Rights Legislation Amendment Act 1998 (NSW) 145 Commonwealth Ombudsman Act1977 (Cth) 83 Conference on Environment and Development (UN) 66...

The Allen Consulting Groups Sustainable Energy Jobs Report

A report prepared by the Allen Consulting Group in 2003 gives an excellent overview of the sustainable energy industry (SEI) in Australia. The Group finds that unless there is government intervention in the energy market, the outlook to 2030 for SEI and renewables is limited. This is as a result of market failure and other difficulties that block the development of the industry. Governments around the world are taking action to address this problem, in particular to reduce greenhouse gas...

Advanced fossil fuel technologies

The Framework recognises that although fossil fuels will continue to be the primary energy supply option worldwide, they must be used more efficiently and their negative environmental impacts must be reduced at the local, regional and global level. This challenge also requires technology transfers from industrial to developing countries. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) included in the Kyoto Protocol is cited as a major incentive for industry leadership in this area.111 Also,...

Advanced fossil fuel and nuclear technologies

An essential component of sustainable development in the energy context involves the development of new technologies to make the production and consumption of the principal fossil fuels, oil, natural gas and coal, more environmentally friendly in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution. In relation to coal, new advanced technologies such as direct coal liquefaction for synthetic fuels production, pressurised fluidised-bed combustion, and coal integrated gasifier combined...

The role of biofuels

Biofuels, as discussed in Chapter 2, are regarded as environmentally friendly types of fuel. On a fuel cycle basis, greenhouse savings of up to 5 can be gained from the use of E10 (which is petrol blended with 10 ethanol). However, the use of 100 biodiesel made from waste oil can achieve 90 cuts in greenhouse gas emissions compared with diesel. Biofuels currently provide around 50 to 60 ML (or 0.3 ) of road transport fuel. Most of this is manufactured from wheat starch produced in New South...

Customary international law

There are three widely accepted principles of customary international law that appear to have potential application in this area. First, the duty to prevent and control environmental harm requires States to take adequate steps to control and regulate sources of serious global pollution or transboundary harm within their territory or subject to their jurisdiction. The origins of such a duty are the Trail Smelter decision19 and Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration on the Human...

Solar energy

Australia receives abundant quantities of direct insolation from the sun. Most of the country receives over 1600kWh per square metre per year of solar radiation, while in an area near the Western Australia-Northern Territory border over 2500kWh per square metre per year of solar radiation is received.24 This is only 10 less than the amount of solar radiation received in the Sahara Desert, where the greatest incidence of solar insolation occurs.25 The amount of solar radiation received by the...

The meaning and scope of energy law

The role of the law can be understood by considering the definition of 'energy law'. Energy law has been described as 'the allocation of rights and duties concerning the exploitation of all energy resources between individuals, between individuals and the government, between governments and between States'.91 The reference to 'energy resources' should not be seen as limited to the primary sources of energy, but should extend to secondary and substitute sources of energy. The most important...

Energy Charter Treaty

The majority of the terms of the Treaty relate to issues of international energy investment and trade. Environmental issues, including energy efficiency, are limited to article 19, which reads in part as follows In pursuit of sustainable development and taking into account its obligations under those international agreements concerning the environment to which it is party, each Contracting Party shall strive to minimize in an economically efficient mannerharmful Environmental Impacts occurring...