Energy from Nature

The Earths Internal Energy

Earth Internal Layers

The interior of our earth is full of heat, noise, and movement in a word, it is brimming with energy. To understand what is happening, we must consider the earth's structure it consists of several layers in the form of spherical shells surrounding a core the layers differ from each other chemically and physically. Figure 14.1a shows a section of how the earth would appear if it were sliced open through the center figure 14.1b is an enlargement of the outermost part showing more detail. Each...

Wave Energy

Wave Nature Energy

Waves have cropped up in several contexts in this book. Chapter 7 described ocean waves or more generally waves moving across a surface. Chapter 15 mentioned earthquake waves. Sound waves have appeared in a variety of contexts, for example, the roar of thunder and of landslides and the crash of breaking waves. Solar radiation, the chief source of energy at the earth's surface, has been touched on in contexts too numerous to list likewise the infrared radiation emitted by sun-warmed land and...

Solar Energy And The Upper Atmosphere

Reflected Back Radiation

In comparison with some of the far larger stars to be seen on a clear, dark night, our sun is often airily dismissed as a second-rate star. All the same, its energy output is impressive it produces 3.8 x 1026 J (joules) per second, without interruption. The rate at which a source yields energy is its power. Power is measured in watts (W), and one watt is one joule per second. Writing this as an equation, 1 W 1 J s-1. The sun's power therefore is 3.8 x 1026 watts, a quantity known as the solar...

Energy In The Biosphere

Example Geocentric Products

Captured Solar Energy Its Final Destination As we saw in chapter 11, nearly 2 billion billion (2 x 1018) kJ of solar energy are captured each year by photosynthesizing plants. What becomes of all the captured energy Some of it travels from plants to herbivores and on to carnivores, up a number of familiar food chains, and is partly dissipated by respiration at each level. But what happens to the rest the energy still unused when the animals at any level of a food chain die The bulk of the...

The Sun The Wind And The

When sunlight shines on the sea, what becomes of it Some is reflected back into the sky, and the rest penetrates the surface to contribute its energy to the water in a word, it is absorbed. This statement prompts two questions. What are the proportions reflected and absorbed And what becomes of the absorbed energy Consider the first question. Recall the account in chapter 4 of the solar energy budget for the earth as a whole. It is believed (see fig. 4.1) that, averaging over all seasons,...

The Energy Of Ocean Waves

What Causes Erratic Waves Ocean

At any one moment, the energy in waves in the whole world ocean is only about one-third as great as the energy in currents.1 All the same, waves are more visible than currents, and they display the ocean's enormous energy much more vividly. Sometimes as when you watch a stormy sea from a protected shore they are exhilarating. But when you look up from a small boat at waves rearing over you, they are terrifying. Waves vary in many ways. They vary in what causes them to form and grow and in what...

How Surface Energy Shapes The Land

Energy Shapes Nature

Land surfaces everywhere are nearly always uneven or hilly to some extent, even where there are no mountains expanses of truly flat land, such as dry lake beds, are always surrounded by higher ground. Wherever you look, the land has relief or non-flatness. This statement is so obvious that it goes without saying, and like many other such statements, it deserves more attention than it usually gets. Why is it true, and what are its implications Put briefly, the answer to the first question is...

The Energy Of The Tides

Single Lumen Picc

The movements of the ocean are traditionally classified into currents, waves, and tides. In one sense, however, tides are waves, albeit of a special kind. Unlike wind waves and swells, which are caused by the wind, and tsunamis, which are caused by earthquakes and similar disturbances, tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun. They are waves nevertheless to distinguish them from other waves, we shall call them tide waves. A tide wave, as we noted in chapter 7, should not...

How The Earth Sheds Its Warmth

Convection Currents The Mantle

The earth is constantly losing its thermal energy by all three of the mechanisms that transport heat from one place to another conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat is conducted through the solid material the inner core and the lithosphere including the crust . It is carried upward in convection currents in the outer core, the mantle, the oceans, and the atmosphere, and it is radiated away into space. Convection not only transports heat, it brings about the generation of more heat because...

Chemical Energy

You have only to look around you, wherever you may be, to see chemical compounds by the thousands, everywhere all are substances consisting of atoms of two or more elements held together by chemical bonds. Nearly every solid material on earth nearly everything you see, animal, vegetable, or mineral consists of chemical compounds, sometimes only one, sometimes several together. Solid substances composed of single elements uncombined with others are rarities even pure gold and pure iron are...

Energy Enters The Biosphere

All living things, without exception, must have energy if they are to survive, to grow, and to multiply. And all living things, with a few exceptions, obtain this energy, directly or indirectly, from sunlight. The few exceptions will be described in chapter 12. The guarded phrase directly or indirectly allows for the fact that only some life forms green plants are able to convert solar energy directly into chemical energy. Other organisms obtain their solar energy at second hand or third or...

Energy And Its Ultimate Fate

Friction is regarded with disfavor by most people except, possibly, the manufacturers of lubricants. Whenever something sticks that should slide, friction is to blame. Friction is an indispensable force, however without it you could not walk or write you could not make an auto move forward the clutch would never stop slipping and if you could the brakes would fail completely. Bedclothes would slide off the moment you got into bed. Friction's services are virtually endless, and they are all...

Electromagnetic Energy

In this chapter we look into a form of energy so far mentioned only in passing. To begin, it is well to repeat, in different words and with less detail, three statements from chapter 2. First, applying a force to an object pushing it or pulling it changes the object's motion it either accelerates it or decelerates it in the direction of the force. If the object was originally stationary, the force causes it to start moving accelerates it. Second, gravity is a force. Specifically, it is the...

Energy Is Everywhere

Once upon a time, about 15 billion years ago, the universe or more cautiously this universe was brought into existence by the Big Bang. At the very first moment, it had zero volume and must have consisted entirely of radiant energy. The density of the energy would have been infinite, and the temperature was of the order of 1032 C. It immediately began to expand and to cool, and it has been doing so ever since.1 As soon as its volume exceeded zero, things began to happen. By the time the infant...

What Is Energy Some Preliminary Physics

In answer to the question, What is energy no less a scientist than the late Nobel laureate Richard Feynman said, In physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is .It is an abstract thing.1 That was in 1963. At a profound epistemological level it is no doubt true to this day. In the same philosophical vein, it is equally true of matter. But for practical purposes that answer is not much help. Turning to more mundane sources, we find that energy is the capacity to perform work, which is...