Contents

Commercial Real Estate Funding System

Commercial Real Estate Financing

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About this book vii

Acknowledgements viii

Foreword ix

Max Fordham

Part One: Energy and environment

Chapter 1 Introduction 2

Chapter 2 Low-energy strategies 3

Chapter 3 The provision of comfort 7

3.1 Thermal comfort 7

3.2 Indoor air quality 9

3.3 Visual comfort 12

3.4 Acoustic comfort 13

3.5 Adaptive opportunity and control 13 Chapter 4 Heating 18

4.1 Useful solar gains and thermal mass 19

4.2 Thermal balance of glazing 21

4.3 Orientation and overshadowing 22

4.4 Insulation and cold bridges 23 Chapter 5 Prevention of overheating 25

5.1 Cooling load reduction 25

5.2 Shading and orientation 27

5.3 Reduction of other heat gains 31

5.4 Ventilation cooling 33

5.5 Thermal mass 35

5.6 Night ventilation 38 Chapter 6 Daylighting 42

6.1 Daylight as energy 42

6.2 Daylight factor 43

6.3 The sky as a light source 44

6.4 Interaction of shading with daylighting 44

6.5 Lighting control systems 45

6.6 Daylighting and thermal function of glazing 47

Chapter 7 Ventilation 52

7.1 Ventilation regimes 52

7.2 Natural ventilation 54

7.3 Ventilation configurations 56

7.4 Use of stacks and ducts 58

7.5 Mechanical ventilation 59

7.6 Air-conditioning 61 Chapter 8 The passive zone concept 64 Chapter 9 Atria and sunspaces 66

9.1 Daylighting and atria 67

9.2 Winter performance 67

9.3 Summer performance 72

9.4 Heating in atria 75 Chapter 10 Energy systems 80

10.1 Energy sources 80

10.2 Renewable sources of heat 81

10.3 Electricity generation 82

10.4 Heat production and distribution 83

10.5 Heat emitters 84

10.6 Heat recovery 85

10.7 Controls 86

10.8 Management issues 86 Bibliography 88

Part Two: The LT Method

Chapter 11 Introduction to the LT Method 90

11.1 Technical background 90

11.2 Limitations of the LT Method 91 Chapter 12 How to use the LT Method 93

12.1 Step 1: the passive zone 93

12.2 Step 2: the glazing ratio 93

12.3 Step 3: the LT curves 94

12.4 Step 4: the LT worksheet 97

12.5 Primary energy and CO2 97

12.6 Interpretation of cooling energy 98

12.7 Step 5: the Urban Horizon Factor 100

12.8 Step 6: atria and sunspaces 101

Chapter 13 LT Method worked examples 105

13.1 Five-storey office building 105

13.2 Four-storey office building with atrium 107

13.3 School with conservatory 109

13.4 Nucleus hospital 111 Chapter 14 LT data and worksheet 113

14.1 LT data 114

14.2 The LT worksheet and notes 116 Bibliography 118

Part Three: Case studies

Introduction 120

1 Ionica Headquarters, Cambridge 121

2 St. Mary's Hospital, Isle of Wight 130

3 Netley Abbey Infants' School, Hampshire 137

4 Department of Electrical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and 144 Technology, Trondheim

5 BRF Headquarters, Copenhagen 152

Appendices 160

A.1 Glossary 160

A.2 The LT model 161

A.3 LT default values 162

A.4 Design checklist 163

Illustration acknowledgements 164

Index 165

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