Renewable Energy Outline

In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted—which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, biomass thermal energy, biomass fuel production, cool energy of snow and ice, clean energy vehicles, natural gas cogeneration, and fuel cells[2].

Both R&D and policy measures to introduce renewable energy are strongly promoted because of their effectiveness in realizing sustainable energy systems in the future. In the 2005 METI report "Prospect for Supply and Demand in 2030," national targets for introducing various new energy sources by 2010 are presented in Table 2.6.

METI's current policy for new energy can be summarized as:

a. Law concerning the development and promotion of Oil Alternative Energy (Alternative Energy Law).

b. Long-term energy supply/demand outlook.

c. Enactment of "Law Concerning Special Measures for Promotion of New Energy Use, etc., (New Energy Law)" enacted in April 1997.

d. Government support system for the domestic introduction of new energy.

• Technological development;

• Validation tests;

• Implementation promotion;

e. Promotion of international cooperation related to new energy.

TABLE 2.6 Present Status and Targets for Introduction of New Energy Sources

FY 1999

FY 2002

FY 2010

Reference Case

Current Additional

Measures Case Measures Case

Under Current Goals Case

Solar power

Wind power

Waste-fired power

Biomass power

Use of solar heat Use of waste Use of biomass heat Unused energy" Black liquor, waste wood, etc."

Total (Proportion of total primary energy supply)

53,000 kl

0.209 million kW 35,000 kl

83,000 kW

1.15 million kl

0.9 million kW 5,400 kl

80,000 kW 0.98 million kl 44,000 kl 36,000 kl

0.156 million kl

0.637 million kW

0.189 million kl

0.463 million kW

1.52 million kl

1.40 million kW

0.226 million kl

0.218 million kW

0.74 million kl

0.62 million kl 1.18 million kl Same as at right

2.54 million kW

0.32 million kl

0.78 million kW

2.08 million kl

1.75 million kW

0.226 million kl

0.218 million kW

0.74 million kl

44,000 kl

41,000 kl 4.57 million kl

60,000 kl 93,000 kl 4.71 million kl 4.87 million kl

4.82 million kW

1.34 million kl

3.00 million kW

5.52 million kl

4.17 million kW

0.34 million kl

0.33 million kW

0.74 million kl 10.72 million kl

0.14 million kl

0.67 million kl

058 million kl

4.87 million kl

7.64 million kl 8.99 million kl 15.38 million 19.10 million kl (1.3%) (1.4%) kl (2.6%) (Approx.

1.18 million kl

4.92 million kW

1.34 million kl

3.00 million kW

5.52 million kl

4.17 million kW

0.34 million kl

0.33 million kW

4.39 million kl

0.14 million kl 0.67 million kl

0.58 million kl 4.94 million kl

19.10 million kl (Approx.

a Unused energy includes ice thermal energy storage; Black liquor and waste wood are a kind of biomass and includes the portion used for power generation; Because the amount of black liquor and waste material introduced depends upon the level of paper pulp produced in the energy field, it is calculated internally in the model.









1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year

FIGURE 2.6 Cumulative installed capacity of PV systems in selected IEA countries. (From IEA/PVPS Trends in photovoltaic applications in selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004; Hamelinck, C. N. and Faaij, A. P. C. Article in press. Outlook for Advanced Biofuels. Energy policy.) Photovoltaics

Among the various renewable energies, PV power generation is one of the top priorities in Japan. As seen in Figure 2.6, about half of the cumulative PV capacity introduced in the world is currently in Japan [4]. Figure 2.7 shows the long-term R&D and promotion road map towards 2030 prepared by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) [5]. Our target is the

FIGURE 2.7 Scenario for improving economic efficiency of PV power generation. (From Overview of PV Roadmap Toward 2030, NEDO, 2004; Ranney, J. W. and Mann, L. K., Biomass and Bioenergy, 6(3), 221-228, 1994.)

introduction of 4.8 GW from PV by 2010 and 102 GW by 2030. The latter target corresponds to about 10% of total electricity demand. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to reduce the power generation cost to about 7 yen/kWh which corresponds to the wholesale cost of electricity. Wind Energy

Introduction of wind power generation systems is progressing rapidly in areas with good wind conditions. The total capacity of around 700 MW was achieved in FY2003 and the target for 2010 is 3 GW. Fuel Cells

High priority is also placed on the development of fuel cells. Aiming at the early introduction of fuel cell vehicles, much effort is being done in R&D. Biomass

Biomass energy has a huge potential as future renewable energy source because of its variety and many different applications. A new initiative called "Biomass Japan" was established in 2002 by six ministries to realize a sustainable society by comprehensively utilizing various biomass products as energy resources. Geothermal Energy

Although not included in "new energy," 19 geothermal power plants with more than 530 MW total capacity are under operation in Japan. Geothermal resources can become competitive with fossil fuel power generation in the long run, but it will be necessary to reduce the development cost and to introduce various measures to encourage further development of geothermal power.

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