Contents

1 Global Energy System D. Yogi Goswami and Frank Kreith 1 -1

1.1 Major Sectors of Primary Energy Use 1 -3

1.2 Electrical Capacity Additions to 2030 1 -4

1.3 Transportation 1 -5

1.4 World Energy Resources 1 -6

1.5 Role of Energy Conservation 1 -16

1.6 Forecast of Future Energy Min 1 -20

2 Energy Policy 2-1

2.1 U.S. State and Federal Policies for Renewables Christopher Namovicz 2-2

2.2 International Policies for Renewable Energy Michael Durstewitz 2-12

2.3 Energy Policies in India Anil Misra 2-21

2.4 Renewable Energy Policies in Israel Gershon Grossman 2-26

2.5 Renewable Energy Policies for China Debra Lew 2-29

2.6 Japanese Policies on Energy Conversation and Renewable Energy Koichi Sakuta 2-32

2.7 Renewable Energy Policies in Brazil Ricardo Ruther 2-36

2.8 Policies for Distributed Generation Jeff Bell 2-39

3 Economics Methods Rosalie Ruegg and Walter Short 3-1

3.1 Introduction 3-1

3.2 Making Economically Efficient Choices 3-2

3.3 Economic-Evaluation Methods 3-4

3.4 Risk Assessment 3-8

3.5 Building Blocks of Evaluation 3-16

3.6 Summary 3-23

Glossary 3-23

4 Environmental Impacts and Costs of Energy Ari Rabl and Joseph V.Spadaro 4-1

4.1 Introduction 4 -1

4.2 Methodology 4-2

4.3 Results for Cost per Kilogram of Pollutant 4-10

4.4 Results for Energy Production 4-12

4.5 Comparison Landfill <-> Incineration 4-16

4.6 Conclusions 4-19

Glossary and Nomenclature 4-20

5 Distributed Generation and Demand-Side Management 5-1

5.1 Distributed Generation Technologies Anibal T. de Almeida and Pedro S. Moura 5-1

5.2 Integration of Distributed Generation into Grid Anibal T. de Almeida and Pedro S. Moura 5 -16

5.3 Demand-Side Management Clark W. GeUings and Kelly E. Parmenter 5-33

6 Generation Technologies through the Year 2025 6-1

6.1 Fossil Fuels Anthony F. Armor 6-1

6.2 Nuclear Power Technologies Edwin A. Harvego and Kenneth D. Kok 6-19

7 Outlook for U.S. Energy Consumption and Prices in the Midterm Andy S. Kydes 7-1

7.1 Introduction 7-2

7.2 Key Energy Issues to 2025 7-2

7.3 Economic Growth 7-3

7.4 Energy Prices 7-6

7.5 Energy Consumption 7-8

7.6 Energy Intensity 7-10

7.7 Electricity Generation 7-11

7.8 Energy Production and Imports 7-12

7.9 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 7-14

7.10 Summary of the AEO2006 Reference Case Projection 7-15

7.11 Overview Impacts of the AE02006 High-Price Case 7-23

8 Transportation Systems Beth Isler 8-1

8.1 Introduction 8-1

8.3 Alternative Transportation: Mass Transit 8-5

8.4 Freight 8-8

8.5 Motor Vehicles: Tank-to-Wheel Technologies 8-13

8.6 Transportation Fuels 8-24

9 Infrastructure Risk Analysis and Security 9-1

9.1 Infrastructure Risk Analysis and Management Bilal M. Ayyub 9-1

9.2 Electricity Infrastructure Security Massoud Amin 9-41

10 Electrical Energy Management in Buildings Craig B. Smith and Kelly E. Parmenter 10-1

10.1 Principal Electricity Uses in Buildings 10-1

10.2 Strategies for Electricity End-Use Management 10-4

10.3 Closing Remarks 10-32

11 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Control Systems

Jan F. Kreider, David E. Claridge, and Charles H. Culp 11-1

11.1 Introduction 11-1

11.2 Modes of Feedback Control 11-3

11.3 Basic Control Hardware 11-8

11.4 Basic Control System Design Considerations 11-15

11.5 Example HVAC Control Systems 11 -25

11.6 Commissioning and Operation of Control Systems 11-36

11.7 Advanced Control System Design Topics: Neural Networks 11-39

11.8 Summary 11-43

12 Energy Efficient Technologies 12-1

12.0 Introduction Frank Kreith 12-2

12.1 Electric Motor Systems Efficiency Aníbal T. de Almeida and Steve Greenberg 12-5

12.2 Energy-Efficient Lighting Technologies and Their Applications in the Commercial and Residential Sectors Barbara Atkinson, Andrea Denver,

James E. McMahon, and Robert Clear 12-26

12.3 Energy-Efficient Technologies: Major Appliancies and Space Conditioning Equipment James E. McMahon, Greg Rosenquist, James Lutz, Alex Lekov,

Peter Biermayer, and Stephen Meyers 12-48

12.4 Heat Pumps Katherine Johnson and Frank Kreith 12-57

13 Compact Heat Exchangers—Recuperators and Regenerators Ramesh K. Shah 13-1

13.1 Introduction 13-2

13.2 Recuperator Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Analysis 13-5

13.3 Regenerator Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Analysis 13-24

13.4 Heat Transfer and Flow Friction Correlations—Single-Phase Flows 13-27

13.5 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Correlations—Two-Phase Flows 13-41

13.6 Exchanger Design Methodology 13-45

13.7 Flow Maldistribution 13-53

13.8 Fouling in Heat Exchangers 13-59

13.9 Concluding Remarks 13-64

13.10 Nomenclature 13-65

14 Industrial Energy Efficiency and Energy Management Craig B. Smith,

Barney L. Capehart, and Wesley M. Rohrer Jr., 14-1

14.1 Introduction 14-1

14.2 Industrial Energy Management and Efficiency Improvement 14-4

14.3 Improving Industrial Energy Audits 14-12

14.4 Industrial Electricity End Uses and Electrical Energy Management 14-23

14.5 Thermal Energy Management in Industry 14-47

14.6 The Role of New Equipment and Technology in Industrial Energy Efficiency 14-64

14.7 Conclusion 14-71

15 Process Energy Efficiency: Pinch Technology 15-1

15.1 Pinch Technology in Theory Kirtan K. Trivedi 15-1

15.2 Pinch Technology in Practice Ed Fouche and Kelly E. Parmenter 15-41

16 Energy Audits for Buildings MoncefKrarti 16-1

16.1 Introduction 16-1

16.2 Background 16-1

16.3 Energy Audit Procedures 16-4

16.4 Energy Management Programs 16-5

16.5 Energy Conservation Measures 16-8

16.6 Summary 16-18

17 Cogeneration W. Dan Turner 17-1

17.1 Introduction 17-2

17.2 Basic Cogeneration Systems 17-4

17.3 Equipment and Components 17-10

17.4 Technical Design Issues 17-16

17.5 Regulatory Considerations 17-20

17.6 Regulatory Developments of the 1990s and Early Twenty-First Century 17-22

17.7 Environmental Considerations, Permitting, Water Quality 17-23

17.8 Economic Evaluations 17-24

17.9 Financial Aspects 17-27

17.10 Case Studies 17-30

17.11 Small-Scale Cogeneration Applications in Buildings 17-34

17.12 Future of Cogeneration 17-38

17.13 Summary and Conclusions 17-40

18 Energy Storage, Transmission, and Distribution 18-1

18.1 Energy Storage Technologies Roel Hammerschlag and Christopher P. Schaber 18-1

18.2 Advanced Concepts in Transmission and Distribution Robert Pratt,

Christopher P. Schaber, and Steve Widergren 18-20

19 Availability of Renewable Resources 19-1

19.1 Solar Energy David S. Renm, Stephen Wilcox, William Marion, Gene L. Maxwell,

Martin Rymes, and Julie Phillips 19-1

19.2 Wind Energy Dale E. Berg 19-31

19.3 Municipal Solid Waste Marjorie A. Franklin 19-60

19.4 Biomass Robert C. Brown 19-66

20 Solar Thermal Energy Conversion 20-1

20.1 Active Solar Heating Systems T. Agami Reddy 20-1

20.2 Solar Heat for Industrial Processes Riccardo Battisti, Hans Schweiger, and Werner Weiss 20-49

20.3 Passive Solar Heating, Cooling, and Daylighting Jeffrey H. Morehouse 20-59

20.4 Solar Cooling D. Yogi Goswami and Sanjay Vijayaraghavan 20-121

21 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Manuel Romero-Alvarez and Eduardo Zarza 21-1

21.1 Introduction and Context 21-2

21.2 Solar Concentration and CSP Systems 21-6

21.3 Solar Concentrator Beam Quality 21-9

21.4 Solar Concentration Ratio: Principles and Limitations of CSP Systems 21-13

21.5 Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies 21-15

21.6 Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants 21-18

21.7 Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power Plants 21-50

21.8 Volumetric Atmospheric Receivers: Phoebus and Solair 21-80

21.9 Solar Air Preheating Systems for Combustion Turbines: The Solgate Project 21-82

21.10 Dish/Stirling Systems 21-85

21.11 Market Opportunities 21-91

21.12 Conclusions 22-92

22 Wind Energy Conversion DaleE. Berg 22-1

22.1 Introduction 22-1

22.2 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics 22-4

22.3 Wind Turbine Loads 22-16

22.4 Wind Turbine Structural Dynamic Considerations 22-16

22.5 Peak Power Limitation 22-18

22.6 Turbine Subsystems 22-20

22.7 Other Wind-Energy Conversion Considerations 22-23

23 Photovoltaics Fundamentals, Technology and Application 23-1

23.1 Photovoltaics Roger Messenger and D. Yogi Goswami 23-1

23.2 Thin-Film PV Technology Hari M. Upadhyaya, Takhir M. Razykov, and

Ayodhya N. Tiwari 23-28

23.3 Concentrating PV Technologies Roland Winston, Robert McConnell, and

D. Yogi Goswami 23-54

23.4 Nomenclature 23-57

23.5 Symbols 23-58

23.6 Acronyms 23-58

24 Waste-to-Energy Combustion Charles O. Velzy and Leonard M. Grillo 24-1

24.1 Introduction 24-1

24.2 Waste Quantities and Characteristics 24-2

24.3 Design of WTE Facilities 24-6

24.4 Air Pollution Control Facilities 24-24

24.5 Performance 24-32

24.6 Costs 24-34

24.7 Status of Other Technologies 24-36

24.8 Future Issues and Trends 24-38

25 Biomass Conversion Processes for Energy Recovery 25-1

25.1 Energy Recovery by Anaerobic

Digestion Massoud Kayhanian and George Tchobanoglous 25-2

25.2 Power Generation Robert C. Brown 25-37

25.3 Biofuels Robert C. Brown 25-51

26 Geothermal Power Generation Kevin Kitz 26-1

26.1 Introduction 26-2

26.2 Definition and Use of Geothermal Energy 26-2

26.3 Requirements for Commercial Geothermal Power Production 26-3

26.4 Exploration and Assessment of Geothermal Resources 26-15

26.5 Management of the Geothermal Resource for Power Production 26-18

26.6 Geothermal Steam Supply (from Wellhead to Turbine) 26-25

26.7 Geothermal Power Production—Steam Turbine Technologies 26-32

26.8 Geothermal Power Production—Binary Power Plant Technologies 26-38

26.9 Environmental Impact 26-43

26.10 Additional Information on Geothermal Energy 26-46

27 Hydrogen Energy Technologies S. A. Sherif, F. Barbir, T. N. Veziroglu,

27.1 Introduction 27-1

27.2 Properties of Hydrogen 27-1

27.3 Hydrogen Production Methods 27-2

27.4 Hydrogen Storage 27-8

27.5 Liquid Hydrogen 27-9

27.6 Hydrogen Transport and Distribution 27-10

27.7 Hydrogen Conversion Technologies 27-11

27.8 Hydrogen Safety 27-12

28 Fuel Cells Xianguo Li 28-1

28.1 Introduction 28-1

28.2 Principle of Operation for Fuel Cells 28-2

28.3 Typical Fuel Cell Systems 28-3

28.4 Performance of Fuel Cells 28-4

28.5 Fuel Cell Electrode Processes 28-25

28.6 Cell Connection and Stack Design Considerations 28-27

28.7 Six Major Types of Fuel Cells 28-29

28.8 Summary 28-44

Appendices Nitin Goel

Appendix 1 The International System of Units, Fundamental Constants, and Conversion Factors A1-1

Appendix 2 Solar Radiation Data A2-1

Appendix 3 Properties of Gases, Vapors, Liquids and Solids A3-1

Appendix 4 Ultimate Analysis of Biomass Fuels A4-1

Appendix 5 Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants A5-1

Global Energy System

D. Yogi Goswami

University of South Florida

Frank Kreith

University of Colorado

1.1 Major Sectors of Primary Energy Use 1 -3

1.2 Electrical Capacity Additions to 2030 1 -4

1.3 Transportation 1 -5

1.4 World Energy Resources 1 -6

Conventional Oil . Natural Gas . Coal . Summary of

Fossil Fuel Reserves . Nuclear Resources . Present Status and Potential of Renewable Energy (RE) . Wind Power . Solar Energy . Biomass . Summary of RE Resources

1.5 Role of Energy Conservation 1 -16

1.6 Forecast of Future Energy Mix 1 -20

References 1 -23

Global energy consumption in the last half century has increased very rapidly and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years. However, we expect to see significant differences between the last 50 years and the next. The past increase was stimulated by relatively "cheap" fossil fuels and increased rates of industrialization in North America, Europe, and Japan; yet while energy consumption in these countries continues to increase, additional factors are making the picture for the next 50 years more complex. These additional complicating factors include the very rapid increase in energy use in China and India (countries representing about a third of the world's population); the expected depletion of oil resources in the not-too-distant future; and the effect of human activities on global climate change. On the positive side, the renewable energy (RE) technologies of wind, biofuels, solar thermal, and photovoltaics (PV) are finally showing maturity and the ultimate promise of cost competitiveness.

Statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA) World Energy Outlook 2004 show that the total primary energy demand in the world increased from 5536 GTOE in 1971 to 10,345 GTOE in 2002, representing an average annual increase of 2% (see Table 1.1 and Figure 1.1).1

Of the total primary energy demand in 2002, fossil fuels accounted for about 80%, with oil, coal, and natural gas accounting for 35.5, 23, and 21.2%, respectively. Biomass accounted for 11% of all the primary energy in the world, with almost all of it being traditional biomass for cooking and heating in developing countries; biomass is used very inefficiently in these applications.

'The energy data for this chapter came from many sources, which use different units of energy, making it difficult to compare the numbers. The conversion factors are given here for a quick reference: MTOE = Mega tons of oil equivalent; 1 MTOE = 4.1868X 104 TJ (Terra Joules) = 3.968X 1013 Btu., GTOE = Giga tons of oil equivalent; 1 GTOE = 1000 MTOE; Quadrillion Btu, also known as Quad: 1015 British Thermal Units or Btu; 1 Btu = 1055 J, 1 TWh = 109 kWh, 1kWh = 3.6 X 10s J.

TABLE 1.1 World Total Energy Demand (MTOE)

Energy Source/Type

1971

2002

Annual Percentage of

Change 1971-2002

Coal

1407

2389

1.7

Oil

2413

3676

1.4

Gas

892

2190

2.9

Nuclear

29

892

11.6

Hydro

104

224

2.5

Biomass and Waste

687

1119

1.6

Other Renewables

4

55

8.8

Total

5536

10,345

2.0

Source: From IEA, World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, Paris, 2004. With permission.

Source: From IEA, World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, Paris, 2004. With permission.

The last 10 years of data for energy consumption from British Petroleum Corp. (BP) also shows that the average increase per year was 2%. However, it is important to note (from Table 1.2) that the average worldwide growth from 2001 to 2004 was 3.7% with the increase from 2003 to 2004 being 4.3%. The rate of growth is rising mainly due to the very rapid growth in Pacific Asia, which recorded an average increase from 2001 to 2004 of 8.6%.

More specifically, China increased its primary energy consumption by 15% from 2003 to 2004. Unconfirmed data show similar increases continuing in China, followed by increases in India. Fueled by high increases in China and India, worldwide energy consumption may continue to increase at rates between 3 and 5% for at least a few more years. However, such high rates of increase cannot continue for long. Various sources estimate that the worldwide average annual increase in energy consumption will be 1.6%-2.5% (IEA 2004; IAEA 2005). Based on a 2% increase per year (average of the estimates from other sources), the primary energy demand of 10,345 GTOE in 2002 would double by 2037 and triple by 2057. With such high energy demand expected 50 years from now, it is important to look at all of the available strategies to fulfill the future demand, especially for electricity and transportation.

Although not a technical issue in the conventional sense, no matter what types of engineering scenarios are proposed to meet the rising energy demands world population, as long as exponential growth in world population continues, the attendant problems of energy and food consumption, as well as environmental degradation, may have no long-term solution (Bartlett 2004). Under current demographic trends, the United Nations forecasts a rise in the global population to around 9 billion in the year 2050. This increase in 2.5 billion people will occur mostly in developing countries with aspirations for a higher standard of living. Thus, population growth should be considered as a part of the overall supply and demand picture to assure the success of future global energy and pollution strategy.

1971

2002

Year

FIGURE 1.1 (See color insert following page 774.) World primary energy demand (MTOE). (Data from IEA, World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, IEA, Paris, 2004. With permission.)

1971

2002

Year

FIGURE 1.1 (See color insert following page 774.) World primary energy demand (MTOE). (Data from IEA, World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, IEA, Paris, 2004. With permission.)

TABLE 1.2 Primary Energy Consumption (MTOE)

Region

2001

2002

2003

2004

Average Increase/Year (%)

2004 Change Over 2003 (%)

North America

2681.5

2721.1

2741.3

2784.4

1.3

1.6

including

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

2256.3

2289.1

2298.7

2331.6

1.1

1.4

South and

452.0

454.4

460.2

483.1

2.2

5.0

Central

America

Europe and

2855.5

2851.5

2908.0

2964.0

1.3

1.9

Euro-Asia

Middle East

413.2

438.7

454.2

481.9

5.3

6.1

Africa

280.0

287.2

300.1

312.1

3.7

4.0

Asia Pacific

2497.0

2734.9

2937.0

3198.8

8.6

8.9

World

9179.3

9487.9

9800.8

10,224.4

3.7

4.3

This data does not include traditional biomass, which was 2229 MTOE in 2002 according to IEA data.

Source: From British Petroleum Corporation, BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2006, British Petroleum, London, 2006,

http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview/.

This data does not include traditional biomass, which was 2229 MTOE in 2002 according to IEA data.

Source: From British Petroleum Corporation, BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2006, British Petroleum, London, 2006,

http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview/.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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