The Case of Germany

Similar to many other European countries, the energy situation in Germany is dominated by the lack of significant fossil resources, oil and gas. The exploitation of domestic mineral coal is decreasing continuously in recent decades and mines which are still in operation receive billions of Euros fiscal support in order to survive against low priced coal on the world market. In some regions in Germany, lignite is exploited, mostly used for the firing of thermal power plants. The geographic and...

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

A visitor to Israel will unavoidably notice the urban landscape bursting with solar collectors and hot water storage tanks covering the roofs of buildings. Almost all residences in Israel are equipped with solar water heaters. The most common are the thermosyphonic system, a completely passive, standalone unit consisting of one or two flat plate solar collectors and an insulated storage tank. Large multistory apartment buildings often use a central system with a collector array on the roof and...

Chile

Chile was the first nation in the world to break up vertically integrated monopolies into separate markets for generation and wires. Strong policy is still lacking to directly promote DE, which partly explains the lack of investment in the area. Recent gas shortages in Chile have been creating somewhat of an energy crisis that should encourage gas conservation (and thus efficient gas cogeneration), but will likely reduce interest in gas-fired cogeneration in the near future. Other DE sources,...

Distributed Generation Technologies

Moura Distributed generation (DG) can be defined as a source of electric power connected to a distribution network or a customer site, representing an innovative and efficient way to both generate and deliver electricity, since it generates electricity right where it is going to be used. Technological improvements now allow power generation systems to be built in smaller sizes with high efficiency, low cost, and minimal environmental impact. Distributed...

Summary of Fossil Fuel Reserves

Even though there are widely differing views and estimates of the ultimately recoverable resources of fossil fuels, it is fair to say that they may last for around 50-150 years with a peak in production occurring much earlier. However, a big concern is the climatic threat of additional carbon that will be released into the atmosphere. According to the estimates from the IEA, if the present shares of fossil fuels are maintained up to 2030 without any carbon sequestration, a cumulative amount of...

Hungary

The majority of Hungary's existing DE capacity is in the form of district heating applications, though many have already reached theend of their life. Many promising policies have recentlybeen adopted in Hungary, yet it remains to be seen how successful they will prove for increasing investment in DE. Hungary still has the lowest target for renewable energy of all the European Union member states. Hungary's accession to the EU will continue to prove the most important driving force in energy...

Methodology

To calculate the damage costs, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis IPA , tracing the passage of a pollutant from where it is emitted to the affected receptors population, crops, forests, buildings, etc. . The principal steps of an IPA can be grouped as follows, as shown in Figure 4.1 1. Emission specification of the relevant technologies and pollutants, e.g., kg of NOx per GWhe emitted by power plant site, stack height, and technology Dispersion atmospheric dispersion amp...

Contents

Yogi Goswami and Frank -1 1.1 Major Sectors of Primary Energy Use -3 1.2 Electrical Capacity Additions to 2030 1 -4 1.5 Role of Energy Conservation 1 -16 1.6 Forecast of Future Energy Min 1 -20 2 Energy Policy 2.1 U.S. State and Federal Policies for Renewables Christopher Namovicz 2-2 2.2 International Policies for Renewable Energy Michael 2.3 Energy Policies in India Anil 2.4 Renewable Energy Policies in Israel Gershon 2.5 Renewable Energy Policies for China Debra 2.6...

K. N. Naik On Cogen India

India is sure to be a major market for DE in the following years given its large population and the urgent need for investment in the power sector in order to meet growing demand for power. Good progress has been made in renewable energy India leads the developing world in wind capacity. Policy with a focus on DE, however, has been more limited but major progress has been made in recent years in developing onsite domestic biogas electricity, PV, and industrial biomass cogeneration. Strong...